Ischemic Optic Neuropathies



Ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) is the most common optic nerve disorder in patients over age 50 years. ION is classified as anterior (affecting the optic disc) versus posterior (retrobulbar) and as arteritic versus nonarteritic. Anterior involvement is common with both arteritic and nonarteritic ION.

Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is the most common form of ION, involving painless, acute monocular visual loss initially with blurred central vision, a visual field defect, or both. Most patients stabilize in 1–2 weeks. On examination, patients often present with decreased visual acuity, dyschromatopsia, a relative afferent pupillary defect, and optic disc edema. The unaffected eye often has a small optic cup.

No proven treatments are available for NAION at this time.

Anterior ischemic optic neuropathies (AION) can also be seen in a variety of clinical settings. Diabetic papillopathy is an atypical form of NAION. NAION can be associated with optic disc drusen, Chlamydia pneumonia, acute and chronic anemia, acute hypotension, coagulopathies, migraine, and sleep apnea syndrome.

The most common vasculitic disorder that causes AION is giant cell arteritis (GCA).

Arteritic AION affects older adults, usually over the age of 70 years. It is associated with polymyalgia rheumatica. Transient prodromal visual loss is more common in GCA than in NAION. Disc edema tends to be pallid rather than hyperemic, as in NAION. Conventional treatment is corticosteroids.

Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) results from infarction of the retrobulbar optic nerve and is distinguished clinically from AION by a normal-appearing optic nerve head. Most patients present with abrupt, painless, unilateral or bilateral loss. There are three distinct etiologic categories that account for the majority of patients with PION: perioperative, such as in the setting of spinal surgeries and radical neck dissection; arteritic, and nonarteritic. PION is a diagnosis of exclusion. Patients with PION and GCA are treated with corticosteroids. There is no proven treatment for perioperative or nonarteritic PION.


Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Giant Cell Arteritis Optic Nerve Head Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Temporal Artery Biopsy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Johnson LN, Arnold AC. Incidence of nonarteritic and arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Population-based study in the state of Missouri and Los Angeles County, California. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994;14(1):38–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boghen DR, Glaser JS. Ischaemic optic neuropathy. The clinical profile and history. Brain. 1975;98(4):689–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Characteristics of patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eligible for the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(11):1366–74.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Repka MX, Savino PJ, Schatz NJ, et al. Clinical profile and long-term implications of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983;96(4):478–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kanski JJ, Bowling B. Clinical ophthalmology: a systematic approach. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2007.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hayreh SS, Zimmerman B. Visual field abnormalities in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: their pattern and prevalence at initial examination. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(11):1554–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnold AC. Pathogenesis of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2003;23(2):157–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Danesh-Meyer HV, Savino PJ, Sergott RC. The prevalence of cupping in end-stage arteritic and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(3):593–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Optic nerve decompression surgery for non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is not effective and may be harmful. The Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial Research Group. JAMA. 1995;273(8): 625–32.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial: twenty-four-month update. Arch Ophthalmol 2000;118(6):793–8.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS. Natural history of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994;14(2):66–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hayreh SS. Anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Differentiation of arteritic from non-arteritic type and its management. Eye. 1990;4(pt 1):25–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Newman NJ, Scherer R, Langenberg P, et al. Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial Research Group. The fellow eye in NAION: report from the ischemic optic neuropathy decompression trial follow-up study. Am J Ophthalmol 2002;134(3):317–28Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beck RW, Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, et al. Aspirin therapy in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123(2):212–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goff MJ, Kerrison JB. Bilateral simultaneous anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a young, healthy man. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(11):1652–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee AG, Lin DJ, Kaufman M, et al. Atypical features prompting neuroimaging in acute optic neuropathy in adults. Can J Ophthalmol. 2000;35(6):325–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller NR, Newman NJ, editors. Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology. 5th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1998.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rath EZ, Rehany U, Linn S, et al. Correlation between optic disc atrophy and aetiology: anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy vs. optic neuritis. Eye. 2003;17(9):1019–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arnold AC, Badr MA, Hepler RS. Fluorescein angiography in nonischemic optic disc edema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(3):293–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rizzo III JF, Andreoli CM, Rabinov JD. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate optic neuritis and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(9):1679–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Contreras I, Rebolleda G, Noval S, et al. Optic disc evaluation by optical coherence tomography in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48(9):4087–92.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jonas JB, Schmidt AM, Müller-Bergh JA, et al. Human optic nerve fiber count and optic disc size. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992;33(6):2012–8.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Savini G, Zanini M, Carelli V, et al. Correlation between retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and optic nerve head size: an optical coherence tomography study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(4):489–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chan CKM, Cheng ACO, Leung CKS, et al. Quantitative assessment of optic nerve head morphology and retinal nerve fiber layer in non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy with optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:731–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bellusci C, Savini G, Carbonelli M, Carelli V, Sadun AA, Barboni P. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: OCT characterization of the acute and resolving phases. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246(5):641–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Contreras I, Noval S, Rebolleda G, Munoz-Negrete FJ. Follow-up of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:2338–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DeLeon-Ortega J, Carroll KE, Arthur SN, Girkin CA. Correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer and visual field in eyes with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:288–94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Girkin CA, McGwin Jr G, DeLeon-Ortega J. Frequency doubling technology perimetry in non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy with altitudinal defects. Br J Opthalmol. 2004;88:1274–9.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Horowitz J, Fishelzon-Arev T, Rath EZ, Segev E, Geyer O. Comparison of optic nerve head topography findings in eyes with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and eyes with glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248(6):845–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Danesh-Meyer HV, Boland MF, Savino PJ, Miller NR, Subramania PS, Girkin CA, et al. Optic disc morphology in open-angle glaucoma compared with anterior ischemic optic neuropathies. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2003–10.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Suh MH, Kim SH, Park KH, Kim SJ, Kim T, Hwang S, et al. Comparison of the correlations between optic disc rim area and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:277–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee MS, Grossman D, Arnold AC, Sloan FA. Incidence of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: increased risk among diabetic patients. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(5):959–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chung SM, Gay CA, McCrary III JA. Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. The impact of tobacco use. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(4):779–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jacobson DM, Vierkant RA, Belongia EA. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A case–control study of potential risk factors. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(11):1403–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fry CL, Carter JE, Kanter MC, et al. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is not associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis. Stroke. 1993;24(4):539–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tesser RA, Niendorf ER, Levin LA. The morphology of an infarct in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(10):2031–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Beck RW, Savino PJ, Repka MX, Schatz NJ, Sergott RC. Optic disc structure in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 1984;91(11):1334–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Feit RH, Tomsak RL, Ellenberger Jr C. Structural factors in the pathogenesis of ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;98(1):105–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eagling EM, Sanders MD, Miller SJ. Ischaemic papillopathy. Clinical and fluorescein angio-graphic review of forty cases. Br J Ophthalmol. 1974;58(12):990–1008.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS. Fluorescein angiography in acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;117(2):222–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Knox DL, Kerrison JB, Green WR. Histopathologic studies of ischemic optic neuropathy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2000;98:203–20. discussion 221–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Olver JM, Spalton DJ, McCartney AC. Microvascular study of the retrolaminar optic nerve in man: the possible significance in anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Eye. 1990;4(pt 1):7–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Onda E, Cioffi GA, Bacon DR, Van Buskirk EM. Microvasculature of the human optic nerve. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120(1):92–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hayreh SS, Podhajsky P, Zimmerman MB. Role of nocturnal arterial hypotension in optic nerve head ischemic disorders. Ophthalmologica. 1999;213(2):76–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Landau K, Winterkorn JM, Mailloux LU, et al. 24-hour blood pressure monitoring in patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114(5):570–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hayreh SS, Piegors DJ, Heistad DD. Serotonin-induced constriction of ocular arteries in atherosclerotic monkeys. Implications for ischemic disorders of the retina and optic nerve head. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(2):220–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Harris A, Ciulla TA, Chung HS, et al. Regulation of retinal and optic nerve blood flow. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116(11):1491–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Strenn K, Matulla B, Wolzt M, et al. Reversal of endothelin-1-induced ocular hemodynamic effects by low-dose nifedipine in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998;63(1):54–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Oku H, Sugiyama T, Kojima S, et al. Experimental optic cup enlargement caused by endothelin-1-induced chronic optic nerve head ischemia. Surv Ophthalmol. 1999;44 suppl 1:S74–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Arnold AC, Levin LA. Treatment of ischemic optic neuropathy. Semin Ophthalmol. 2002;17(1):39–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Keltner JL, Becker B, Gay AJ, Podos SM. Effect of diphenylhydantoin in ischemic optic neuritis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1972;70:113–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Johnson LN, Gould TJ, Krohel GB. Effect of levodopa and carbidopa on recovery of visual function in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy of longer than six months' duration. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121(1):77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smith JL. Norepinephrine therapy of ischemic optic neuropathy. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1981;1(4):289–90.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kollarits CR, McCarthy RW, Corrie WS, et al. Norepinephrine therapy of ischemic optic neuropathy. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1981;1:283–8.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kajiwara K, Tsubota K, Hara Y. High-dose urokinase thrombolysis and stellate ganglion block for anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Folia Ophthalmol Jpn. 1990;41:59–64.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kaderli B, Avci R, Yucel A, Guler K, Gelisken O. Intravitreal triamcinolone improves recovery of visual acuity in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2007;27(3):164–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Botelho PJ, Johnson LN, Arnold AC. The effect of aspirin on the visual outcome of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121(4):450–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Maas A, Walzl M, Jesenik F, et al. Application of HELP in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: a prospective, randomized, controlled study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1997;235:14–9.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Yee RD, Selky AK, Purvin VA. Outcomes of optic nerve sheath decompression for nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994;14(2):70–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Beck RW, Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, Tan ES, Moke PS. Aspirin therapy in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Ophthalmol. 1997;123(2):212–7.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: role of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008;246(7):1029–46.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB. Optic disc edema in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;245(8):1107–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jonas JB, Spandau UH, Harder B, Sauder G. Intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of acute nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2007;245(5):749–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Jonas JB, Sauder G, Budde WM, Spandau UH, Kamppeter BA, Harder B. Triamcinolone acetonide-induced ocular hypertension. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006;22(4):247–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wilhelm B, Ludtke H, Wilhelm H, The BRAION study group. Efficacy and tolerability of 0.2% brimonidine tartrate for the treatment of acute non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION): a 3-month, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2006;244(5):551–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Johnson LN, Guy ME, Krohel GB, Madsen RW. Levodopa may improve vision loss in recent onset, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(3):521–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Simsek T, Eryilmaz T, Acaroglu G. Efficacy of levodopa and carbidopa on visual function in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Int J Clin Pract. 2005;59(3):287–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bojic L, Ivanisevic M, Gosovic G. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in two patients with non-arteritic anterior optic neuropathy who did not respond to prednisone. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2002;29(2):86–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bojic L, Cerovski B, Bucan K, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Acta Med Croatica. 1995;49(3):133–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bojic L, Kovacevic H, Andric D, Karaman-Kraljevic K, Cagalj S. The effects of hyperbaric oxygen on visual functions in ischaemic optic neuropathy. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 1994;45(1):19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Arnold AC, Hepler RS, Lieber M, Alexander JM. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122(4):535–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Soheilian M, Koochek A, Yazdani S, Peyman GA. Transvitreal optic neurotomy for nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Retina. 2003;23(5):692–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lubow M, Makley Jr TA. Pseudopapilledema of juvenile diabetes mellitus. Arch Ophthalmol. 1971;85(4):417–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Barr CC, Glaser JS, Blankenship G. Acute disc swelling in juvenile diabetes. Clinical profile and natural history of 12 cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1980;98(12):2185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pavan PR, Aiello LM, Wafai MZ, Briones JC, Sebestyen JG, Bradbury MJ. Optic disc edema in juvenile-onset diabetes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1980;98(12):2193–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hayreh SS, Zahoruk RM. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. VI. In juvenile diabetics. Ophthalmologica. 1981;182(1):13–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Friedland S, Winterkorn JM, Burde RM. Luxury perfusion following anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1996;16(3):163–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ho AC, Maguire AM, Yanuzzi LA, et al. Rapidly progressive optic disc neovascularization after diabetic papillopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120:673–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Regillo CD, Brown GC, Savino PJ, et al. Diabetic papillopathy. Patient characteristics and fundus findings. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995;113(7):889–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sato T, Fujikado T, Hosohata J, Ohji M, Tano Y. Development of bilateral, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in an eye with diabetic papillopathy. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2004;48(2):158–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Munteanu M, Lehaci C. Acute anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in association with optic nerve drusen. Oftalmologia. 2004;48(3):16–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Purvin V, King R, Kawasaki A, Yee R. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in eyes with optic disc drusen. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122(1):48–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Weger M, Haas A, Stanger O, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity and the risk of non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2002;“109(4):749–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vecsei PV, Kircher K, Reitner A, Khanakha G, Stanek G. Chlamydia in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmologica. 2002;216(3):215–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Drance SM, Morgan RW, Sweeney VP. Shock-induced optic neuropathy: a cause of nonprogressive glaucoma. N Engl J Med. 1973;288(8):392–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hayreh SS. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. VIII. Clinical features and pathogenesis of post-hemorrhagic amaurosis. Ophthalmology. 1987;94(11):1488–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hollenhorst RW, Wagener HP. Loss of vision after distant hemorrhage. Am J Med Sci. 1950;219:209–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Moster ML. Visual loss after coronary artery bypass surgery. Surv Ophthalmol. 1998;42(5):453–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Foroozan R, Buono LM, Savino PJ. Optic disc structure and shock-induced anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(2):327–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Chisholm IA. Optic neuropathy of recurrent blood loss. Br J Ophthalmol. 1969;53(5):289–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lazaro EJ, Cinotti AA, Eichler PN, Khawaja AA. Amaurosis due to massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Am J Gastroenterol. 1971;55(1):50–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Klewin KM, Appen RE, Kaufman PL. Amaurosis and blood loss. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86(5):669–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Johnson MW, Kincaid MC, Trobe JD. Bilateral retrobulbar optic nerve infarctions after blood loss and hypotension. A clinicopathologic case study. Ophthalmology. 1987;94(12):1577–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chan JW. Acute bilateral simultaneous PION after ectopic pregnancy-related hemorrhage. Eye. 2006;20(6):747–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Presencia AC, Hernandez AM, Guia ED. Amaurosis following blood loss. Ophthalmologica. 1985;191:119–22.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Basile C, Addabbo G, Montanaro A. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and dialysis: role of hypotension and anemia. J Nephrol. 2001;14(5):420–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chutorian AM, Winterkorn JM, Geffner M. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in children: case reports and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurol. 2002;26(5):358–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Servilla KS, Groggel GC. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy as a complication of hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 1986;8(1):61–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hamed LM, Winward KE, Glaser JS, Schatz NJ. Optic neuropathy in uremia. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989;108(1):30–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Connolly SE, Gordon KB, Horton JC. Salvage of vision after hypotension-induced ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;117(2):235–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Korzets A, Marashek I, Schwartz A, Rosenblatt I, Herman M, Ori Y. Ischemic optic neuropathy in dialyzed patients: a previously unrecognized manifestation of calcific uremic arteriolopathy. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;44(6):e93–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Alpert JN, Pena Y, Leachman DR. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after coronary bypass surgery. Tex Med. 1987;83(8):45–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Larkin DF, Wood AE, Neligan M, Eustace P. Ischaemic optic neuropathy complicating car-diopulmonary bypass. Br J Ophthalmol. 1987;71(5):344–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rizzo III JF, Lessell S. Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy during general surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;103(6):808–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shahian DM, Speert PK. Symptomatic visual deficits after open heart operations. Ann Thorac Surg. 1989;48(2):275–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tice DA. Ischemic optic neuropathy and cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 1987;44(6):677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Brown RH, Schauble JF, Miller NR. Anemia and hypotension as contributors to periopera-tive loss of vision. Anesthesiology. 1994;80(1):222–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ballen PH, Fox MJ, Weissman GS. Ischemic optic neuropathy secondary to intestinal hemorrhage. Ann Ophthalmol. 1985;17(8):486–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jaben SL, Glaser JS, Daily M. Ischemic optic neuropathy following general surgical procedures. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1983;3(4):239–44.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Katz DM, Trobe JD, Cornblath WT, Kline LB. Ischemic optic neuropathy after lumbar spine surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994;112(7):925–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lee AG. Ischemic optic neuropathy following lumbar spine surgery. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1995;83(2):348–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tidow-Kebritchi S, Jay WM. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following off-pump cardiac bypass surgery. Semin Ophthalmol. 2003;18(4):166–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Postoperative Visual Loss Study Group. Risk factors associated with ischemic optic neuropathy after spinal fusion surgery. Anesthesiology. 2012;116(1):15–24.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Foroozan R, Varon J. Bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after liposuction. J Neuroophthalmol. 2004;24(3):211–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Minagar A, Schatz NJ, Glaser JS. Liposuction and ischemic optic neuropathy. Case report and review of literature. J Neurol Sci. 2000;181(1–2):132–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tomsak RL, Remler BF. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and increased intraocular pressure. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1989;9(2):116–8.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Katz B. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and intraocular pressure. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110(5):596–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB, Podhajsky P, Alward WL. Nocturnal arterial hypotension and its role in optic nerve head and ocular ischemic disorders. Am J Ophthalmol. 1994;117(5):603–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Shiose Y. Intraocular pressure: new perspectives. Surv Ophthalmol. 1990;34(6):413–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Williams EL, Hart Jr WM, Tempelhoff R. Postoperative ischemic optic neuropathy. Anesth Analg. 1995;80(5):1018–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Abraham M, Sakhuja N, Sinha S, Rastogi S. Unilateral visual loss after cervical spine surgery. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2003;15(4):319–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Golnik KC, Newman SA. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with macrocytic anemia. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1990;10(4):244–7.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Foulds WS, Chisholm IA, Stewart JB, Wilson TM. The optic neuropathy of pernicious anemia. Arch Ophthalmol. 1969;82(4):427–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kacer B, Hattenbach LO, Horle S, Scharrer I, Kroll P, Koch F. Central retinal vein occlusion and nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy in 2 patients with mild iron deficiency anemia. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215(2):128–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Acheson JF, Sanders MD. Coagulation abnormalities in ischaemic optic neuropathy. Eye. 1994;8(pt 1):89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Salomon O, Huna-Baron R, Kurtz S, et al. Analysis of prothrombotic and vascular risk factors in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(4):739–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nagy V, Facsko A, Takacs L, et al. Activated protein C resistance in anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2004;82(2):140–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Stanger O, Weger M, Obeid R, et al. Impairment of homocysteine metabolism in patients with retinal vascular occlusion and non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(10):1020–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kawasaki A, Purvin VA, Burgett RA. Hyperhomocysteinemia in young patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999;83(11):1287–90.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Glueck CJ, Wang P, Bell H, Rangaraj V, Goldenberg N. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: associations with homozygosity for the C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation. J Lab Clin Med. 2004;143(3):184–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Weger M, Stanger O, Deutschmann H, et al. Hyperhomocysteinaemia, but not MTHFR C677T mutation, as a risk factor for non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001;85(7):803–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Salomon O, Rosenberg N, Steinberg DM, et al. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is associated with a specific platelet polymorphism located on the glycoprotein Ib alpha gene. Ophthalmology. 2004;111(1):184–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Levine SR. Hypercoagulable states and stroke: a selective review. CNS Spectr. 2005;10(7):567–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Luescher TF. The endothelium and cardiovascular disease: a complex relationship. N Engl J Med. 1994;330:1081–3.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Corbett JJ. Neuro-ophthalmic complications of migraine and cluster headaches. Neurol Clin. 1983;1(4):973–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Cowan Jr CL, Knox DL. Migraine optic neuropathy. Ann Ophthalmol. 1982;14(2):164–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Katz B, Bamford CR. Migrainous ischemic optic neuropathy. Neurology. 1985;35(1):112–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    McDonald WI, Sanders MD. Migraine complicated by ischaemic papillopathy. Lancet. 1971;2(7723):521–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Victor DI, Welch RB. Bilateral retinal hemorrhages and disk edema in migraine. Am J Ophthalmol. 1977;84(4):555–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Weinstein JM, Feman SS. Ischemic optic neuropathy in migraine. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100(7):1097–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Flammer J, Pache M, Resink T. Vasospasm, its role in the pathogenesis of diseases with particular reference to the eye. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2001;20(3):319–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Rufa A, De Stefano N, Dotti MT, et al. Acute unilateral visual loss as the first symptom of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy. Arch Neurol. 2004;61(4):577–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Mojon DS, Hedges III TR, Ehrenberg B, et al. Association between sleep apnea syndrome and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120(5):601–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, Zimmerman B. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: time of onset of visual loss. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;124(5):641–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hayreh SS. The 1994 Von Sallman lecture. The optic nerve head circulation in health and disease. Exp Eye Res. 1995;61(3):259–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Purvin VA, Kawasaki A, Yee RD. Papilledema and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(12):1626–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Behbehani R, Mathews MK, Sergott RC, Savino PJ. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in patients with sleep apnea while being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139(3):518–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Keltner JL. Giant-cell arteritis. Signs and symptoms. Ophthalmology. 1982;89(10):1101–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Aiello AL, Sadun AA, Feldon SE. Spontaneous improvement of progressive anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: report of two cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110(9):1197–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Liu GT, Glaser JS, Schatz NJ, Smith JL. Visual morbidity in giant cell arteritis. Clinical characteristics and prognosis for vision. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(11):1779–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Liu NH, LaBree LD, Feldon SE, Rao NA. The epidemiology of giant cell arteritis: a 12-year retrospective study. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(6):1145–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Tomsak RL. Giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(2):219–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kobayashi S, Yano T, Matsumoto Y, et al. Clinical and epidemiologic analysis of giant cell (temporal) arteritis from a nationwide survey in 1988 in Japan: the first government-supported nationwide survey. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;49:594–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Haugeberg G, Paulsen PQ, Bie RB. Temporal arteritis in Vest Agder County in southern Norway: incidence and clinical findings. J Rheumatol. 2000;27(11):2624–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Baldursson O, Steinsson K, Björnsson J, Lie JT. Giant cell arteritis in Iceland. An epidemiologic and histopathologic analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 1994;37(7):1007–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Salvarani C, Crowson CS, O'Fallon WM, Hunder GG, Gabriel SE. Reappraisal of the epidemiology of giant cell arteritis in Olmsted County, Minnesota, over a fifty-year period. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;51(2):264–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Ramstead CL, Patel AD. Giant cell arteritis in a neuro-ophthalmology clinic in Saskatoon, 1998–2003. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42(2):295–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Salvarani C, Cantini F, Boiardi L, Hunder GG. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(4):261–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Larsson K, Mellström D, Nordborg E, Odén A, Nordborg E. Early menopause, low body mass index, and smoking are independent risk factors for developing giant cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65(4):529–32. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65(8):1120. Erratum.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Duhaut P, Pinede L, Demolombe-Rague S, et al. Giant cell arteritis and cardiovascular risk factors: a multicenter, prospective case–control study. Groupe de Recherche sur l'Artérite à Cellules Géantes. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41(11):1960–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Liozon E, Ouattara B, Rhaiem K, et al. Familial aggregation in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica: a comprehensive literature review including 4 new families. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009;27(1 Suppl 52):S89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Kemp A. Monozygotic twins with temporal arteritis and ophthalmic arteritis. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1977;55(2):183–90.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wernick R, Davey M, Bonafede P. Familial giant cell arteritis: report of an HLA-typed sibling pair and a review of the literature. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1994;12(1):63–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, Garcia-Porrua C, Hajeer AH, Dababneh A, Ollier WE. HLA-DRB1*04 may be a marker of severity in giant cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2000;59(7):574–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Rauzy O, Fort M, Nourhashemi F, et al. Relation between HLA DRB1 alleles and corticosteroid resistance in giant cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998;57(6):380–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Weyand CM, Hicok KC, Hunder GG, Goronzy JJ. The HLA-DRB1 locus as a genetic component in giant cell arteritis. Mapping of a disease-linked sequence motif to the antigen binding site of the HLA-DR molecule. J Clin Invest. 1992;90(6):2355–61.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, Raman R, Zimmerman B. Giant cell arteritis: validity and reliability of various diagnostic criteria. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;123(3):285–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, Garcia-Porrua C, Miranda-Filloy JA. Giant cell arteritis: diagnosis and therapeutic management. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2006;8(4):299–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, Zimmerman B. Occult giant cell arteritis: ocular manifestations. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125(4):521–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hayreh SS, Jonas JB. Optic disc morphology after arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2001;108(9):1586–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Kaiser M, Younge B, Bjornsson J, Goronzy JJ, Weyand CM. Formation of new vaso vasorum in vasculitis. Production of angiogenic cytokines by multinucleated giant cells. Am J Pathol. 1999;155(3):765–74.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Wagner AD, Bjornsson J, Bartley GB, Goronzy JJ, Weyand CM. Interferon-gamma-producing T cells in giant cell vasculitis represent a minority of tissue-infiltrating cells and are located distant from the site of pathology. Am J Pathol. 1996;148(6):1925–33.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Brack A, Geisler A, Martinez-Taboada VM, et al. Giant cell vasculitis is a T cell-dependent disease. Mol Med. 1997;3(8):530–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Martinez-Taboada V, Hunder NN, Hunder GG, Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ. Recognition of tissue residing antigen by T cells in vasculitic lesions of giant cell arteritis. J Mol Med. 1996;74(11):695–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Brack A, Rittner HL, Younge BR, et al. Glucocorticoid-mediated repression of cytokine gene transcription in human arteritis-SCID chimeras. J Clin Invest. 1997;99(12):2842–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Rittner HL, Kaiser M, Brack A, et al. Tissue-destructive macrophages in giant cell arteritis. Circ Res. 1999;84(9):1050–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ. Pathogenic mechanisms in giant cell arteritis. Cleve Clin J Med. 2002;69 suppl 2:SII28–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Mitchell BM, Font RL. Detection of varicella zoster virus DNA in some patients with giant cell arteritis. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42(11):2572–7.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Rimenti G, Blasi F, Cosentini R, et al. Temporal arteritis associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA detected in an artery specimen. J Rheumatol. 2000;27(11):2718–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Haugeberg G, Bie R, Nordbo SA. Temporal arteritis associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA detected in an artery specimen. J Rheumatol. 2001;28(7):1738–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Regan MJ, Wood BJ, Hsieh YH, et al. Temporal arteritis and Chlamydia pneumoniae: failure to detect the organism by polymerase chain reaction in ninety cases and ninety controls. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(4):1056–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Helweg-Larsen J, Tarp B, Obel N, Baslund B. No evidence of parvovirus B19, Chlamydia pneumoniae or human herpes virus infection in temporal artery biopsies in patients with giant cell arteritis. Rheumatology (Oxf). 2002;41(4):445–9.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Katz, B, Koening C, Patel B, Kim C, et al. Identification of Burkholderia in the temporal arteries and blood of patients with giant cell arteritis. Abstract presentation at NANOS meeting, Canada:Vancouver, 2011.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hunder GG, Bloch DA, Michel BA, et al. The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1990;33(8):1122–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Hall JK, Volpe NJ, Galetta SL, et al. The role of unilateral temporal artery biopsy. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(3):543–8. discussion 548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Jundt JW, Mock D. Temporal arteritis with normal erythrocyte sedimentation rates presenting as occipital neuralgia. Arthritis Rheum. 1991;34(2):217–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Salvarani C, Hunder GG. Giant cell arteritis with low erythrocyte sedimentation rate: frequency of occurrence in a population-based study. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;45(2):140–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Wise CM, Agudelo CA, Chmelewski WL, McKnight KM. Temporal arteritis with low erythrocyte sedimentation rate: a review of five cases. Arthritis Rheum. 1991;34(12):1571–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Wong RL, Korn JH. Temporal arteritis without an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Case report and review of the literature. Am J Med. 1986;80(5):959–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Miller A, Green M, Robinson D. Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983;286(6361):266.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Foroozan R, Danesh-Meyer H, Savino PJ, et al. Thrombocytosis in patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology. 2002;109(7):1267–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Gonzalez-Alegre P, Ruiz-Lopez AD, Abarca-Costalago M, Gonzalez-Santos P. Increment of the platelet count in temporal arteritis: response to therapy and ischemic complications. Eur Neurol. 2001;45(1):43–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Costello F, Zimmerman MB, Podhajsky PA, Hayreh SS. Role of thrombocytosis in diagnosis of giant cell arteritis and differentiation of arteritic from non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2004;14(3):245–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Salvarani C, Cantini F, Boiardi L, Hunder GG. Laboratory investigations useful in giant cell arteritis and Takayasu’s arteritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2003;21(6 suppl 32):S23–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Niederkohr RD, Levin LA. A Bayesian analysis of the true sensitivity of a temporal artery biopsy. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48(2):675–80.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Hedges 3rd TR, Gieger GL, Albert DM. The clinical value of negative temporal artery biopsy specimens. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983;101(8):1251–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Boyev LR, Miller NR, Green WR. Efficacy of unilateral versus bilateral temporal artery biopsies for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128(2):211–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ray-Chaudhuri N, Kine DA, Tijani SO, et al. Effect of prior steroid treatment on temporal artery biopsy findings in giant cell arteritis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86(5):530–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Lie JT. Temporal artery biopsy diagnosis of giant cell arteritis: lessons from 1109 biopsies. Anat Pathol. 1996;1:69–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Poller DN, van Wyk Q, Jeffrey MJ. The importance of skip lesions in temporal arteritis. J Clin Pathol. 2000;53(2):137–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    McDonnell PJ, Moore GW, Miller NR, Hutchins GM, Green WR. Temporal arteritis. A clinicopathologic study. Ophthalmology. 1986;93(4):518–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Nordborg E, Nordborg C. Giant cell arteritis: strategies in diagnosis and treatment. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004;16(1):25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Karahaliou M, Vaiopoulos G, Papaspyrou S, et al. Colour duplex sonography of temporal arteries before decision for biopsy: a prospective study in 55 patients with suspected giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8(4):R116.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Ho AC, Sergott RC, Regillo CD, et al. Color Doppler hemodynamics of giant cell arteritis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994;112(7):938–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Schmid R, Hermann M, Yannar A, Baumgartner RW. Color duplex ultrasound of the temporal artery: replacement for biopsy in temporal arteritis. Ophthalmologica. 2002;216(1):16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Schmidt WA, Kraft HE, Vorpahl K, Volker L, Gromnica-Ihle EJ. Color duplex ultrasonography in the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(19):1336–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Salvarani C, Silingardi M, Ghirarduzzi A, et al. Is duplex ultrasonography useful for the diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis? Ann Intern Med. 2002;137(4):232–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Vianna RN, Mansour M, Ozdal PC, et al. The role of ultrasound biomicroscopy in predicting the result of temporal artery biopsy in temporal arteritis patients: a preliminary study. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15(6):655–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Morgenstern KE, Ellis BD, Schochet SS, Linberg JV. Bilateral optic nerve sheath enhancement from giant cell arteritis. J Rheumatol. 2003;30(3):625–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Lee AG, Eggenberger ER, Kaufman DI, Manrique C. Optic nerve enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging in arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 1999;19(4):235–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Harada S, Mitsunobu F, Kodama F, et al. Giant cell arteritis associated with rheumatoid arthritis monitored by magnetic resonance angiography. Intern Med. 1999;38(8):675–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Mitomo T, Funyu T, Takahashi Y, et al. Giant cell arteritis and magnetic resonance angiography. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41(9):1702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Stanson AW. Imaging findings in extracranial (giant cell) temporal arteritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2000;18(4 suppl 20):S43–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Ghanchi FD, Dutton GN. Current concepts in giant cell (temporal) arteritis. Surv Ophthalmol. 1997;42(2):99–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Hunder GG, Sheps SG, Allen GL, et al. Daily and alternate-day corticosteroid regimens in treatment of giant cell arteritis: comparison in a prospective study. Ann Intern Med. 1975;82:613–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Zborowska B, Ell J, McGhee-Collett M, Scolyer R, McCluskey PJ. Progressive visual loss in a patient with presumed temporal arteritis despite treatment: how to make the diagnosis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2004;32(3):335–6.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Hayreh SS, Zimmerman B. Visual deterioration in giant cell arteritis patients while on high doses of corticosteroid therapy. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(6):1204–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Hayreh SS, Zimmerman B. Management of giant cell arteritis. Our 27-year clinical study: new light on old controversies. Ophthalmologica. 2003;217(4):239–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Foroozan R, Deramo VA, Buono LM, et al. Recovery of visual function in patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(3):539–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Kim N, Trobe JD, Flint A, Keoleian G. Late ipsilateral recurrence of ischemic optic neuropathy in giant cell arteritis. J Neuroophthalmol. 2003;23(2):122–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Hunder GG. Giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Med Clin N Am. 1997;81(1):195–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Andersson R, Malmvall BE, Bengtsson BA. Long-term corticosteroid treatment in giant cell arteritis. Acta Med Scand. 1986;220(5):465–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Bengtsson BA, Malmvall BE. Prognosis of giant cell arteritis including temporal arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. A follow-up study on ninety patients treated with corticosteroids. Acta Med Scand. 1981;209(5):337–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Chan CC, Paine M, O’Day J. Predictors of recurrent ischemic optic neuropathy in giant cell arteritis. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005;25(1):14–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Weyand CM, Kaiser M, Yang H, Younge B, Goronzy JJ. Therapeutic effects of acetylsalicylic acid in giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(2):457–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ruegg S, Engelter S, Jeanneret C, et al. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion resulting from giant cell arteritis: report of 3 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2003;82(1):1–12.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Nesher G, Berkun Y, Mates M, et al. Low-dose aspirin and prevention of cranial ischemic complications in giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50(4):1332–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Lee MS, Smith SD, Galor A, Hoffman GS. Antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy in patients with giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(10):3306–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Doury P, Pattin S, Eulry F, Thabaut A. The use of dapsone in the treatment of giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Arthritis Rheum. 1983;26(5):689–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Krall PL, Mazanec DJ, Wilke WS. Methotrexate for corticosteroid-resistant polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. Cleve Clin J Med. 1989;56(3):253–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Spiera RF, Kupersmith M, Paget S, Spiera H. Vision loss in giant cell arteritis patients treated with alternate-day corticosteroids: comment on the article by Hoffman et al. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48(4):1159–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Utsinger PD. Treatment of steroid nonresponsive giant cell arteritis with cytoxan. Arthritis Rheum. 1982;25(suppl):S31.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Hoffman GS, Cid MC, Hellmann DB, et al. International network for the study of systemic vasculitides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of adjuvant methotrexate treatment for giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(5):1309–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Jover JA, Hernandez-Garcia C, Morado IC, et al. Combined treatment of giant-cell arteritis with methotrexate and prednisone. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2001;134(2):106–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Spiera RF, Mitnick HJ, Kupersmith M, et al. A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of methotrexate in the treatment of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2001;19(5):495–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    De Silva M, Hazleman BL. Azathioprine in giant cell arteritis/polymyalgia rheumatica: a double-blind study. Ann Rheum Dis. 1986;45(2):136–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Schaufelberger C, Andersson R, Nordborg E. No additive effect of cyclosporin A compared with glucocorticoid treatment alone in giant cell arteritis: results of an open, controlled, randomized study. Br J Rheumatol. 1998;37(4):464–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Cantini F, Niccoli L, Salvarani C, Padula A, Olivieri I. Treatment of longstanding active giant cell arteritis with infliximab: report of four cases. Arthritis Rheum. 2001;44(12):2933–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Airo P, Antonioli CM, Vianelli M, Toniati P. Anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment with infliximab in a case of giant cell arteritis resistant to steroid and immunosuppressive drugs. Rheumatology (Oxf). 2002;41(3):347–9.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Andonopoulos AP, Meimaris N, Daoussis D, Bounas A, Giannopoulos G. Experience with infliximab (anti-TNF alpha monoclonal antibody) as monotherapy for giant cell arteritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62(11):1116.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Uthman I, Kanj N, Atweh S. Infliximab as monotherapy in giant cell arteritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;25(1):109–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Tan AL, Holdsworth J, Pease C, Emery P, McGonagle D. Successful treatment of resistant giant cell arteritis with etanercept. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003;62(4):373–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Martínez-Taboada VM, Rodríguez-Valverde V. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of etanercept in patients with giant cell arteritis and corticosteroid side effects. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67(5):625–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Hayreh SS, Zimmerman B, Kardon RH. Visual improvement with corticosteroid therapy in giant cell arteritis. Report of a large study and review of literature. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2002;80(4):355–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Font C, Cid MC, Coll-Vinent B, Lopez-Soto A, Grau JM. Clinical features in patients with permanent visual loss due to biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis. Br J Rheumatol. 1997;36(2):251–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Schmidt D, Vaith P, Hetzel A. Prevention of serious ophthalmic and cerebral complications in temporal arteritis? Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2000;18(4 suppl 20):S61–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Gonzalez-Gay MA, Blanco R, Rodriguez-Valverde V, et al. Permanent visual loss and cerebrovascular accidents in giant cell arteritis: predictors and response to treatment. Arthritis Rheum. 1998;41(8):1497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Aiello PD, Trautmann JC, McPhee TJ, Kunselman AR, Hunder GG. Visual prognosis in giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmology. 1993;100(4):550–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Hsu CT, Kerrison JB, Miller NR, Goldberg MF. Choroidal infarction, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and central retinal artery occlusion from polyarteritis nodosa. Retina. 2001;21(4):348–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Salazar R, Russman AN, Nagel MA, et al. Varicella zoster virus ischemic optic neuropathy and subclinical temporal artery involvement. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(4):517–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Perić S, Cerovski B, Perić P. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in patient with rheumatoid arthritis: case report. Coll Antropol. 2001;25(Suppl):67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Duran E, Merkel PA, Sweet S, Swan N, Babikian VL. ANCA-associated small vessel vasculitis presenting with ischemic optic neuropathy. Neurology. 2004;62(1):152–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Nithyanandam S, Mohan A, Sheth U. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a case of Takayasu’s arteritis. Oman J Ophthalmol. 2010;3(2):94–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Kim S, Kang S, Roh YJ. A case of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with Behcet’s disease. Eye. 2011;25(3):395–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Felekis T, Katsanos KH, Zois CD, et al. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with Crohn’s disease and aberrant MTHFR and GPIIIa gene variants. J Crohns Colitis. 2010;4(4):471–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Frigui M, Frikha F, Sellemi D, et al. Optic neuropathy as a presenting feature of systemic lupus erythematosus: two case reports and literature review. Lupus. 2011;20(11):1214–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Khurma V, Appen R, Wolf MD, Hansen KE. Wegener granulomatosis presenting as bilateral loss of vision. Clin Rheumatol. 2005;11(5):267–9.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Hayakawa K, Akatsuka I, Matsukura S, Kawai K, Ohkuma H, Shimamura K. Case of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy accompanied by Churg-Strauss syndrome. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2004;108(10):612–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Khairallah M, Zaouali S, Ben Yahia S, et al. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with Rickettsia conorii infection. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005;25(3):212–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Sadda SR, Nee M, Miller NR, Biousse V, Newman NJ, Kouzis A. Clinical spectrum of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132(5):743–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Buono LM, Foroozan R. Perioperative posterior ischemic optic neuropathy: review of the literature. Surv Ophthalmol. 2005;50(1):15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Saul GV, Sarkies NJC. PION due to internal carotid artery occlusion. Neuro-Ophthalmology. 1987;7:349–53.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Tsai RK, Sun CY. Spontaneous dissection of internal carotid artery presenting as isolated posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 1997;81(6):513.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Hashimoto M, Ohtsuka K, Suzuki Y, Hoyt WF. A case of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a posterior-draining dural cavernous sinus fistula. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005;25(3):176–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Kothe AC, Flanagan J, Trevino RC. True posterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Optom Vis Sci. 1990;67(11):845–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Weinstein JM, Morris GL, ZuRhein GM, Gentry LR. Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy due to Aspergillus fumigatus. J Clin Neuro Ophthalmol. 1989;9(1):7–13.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Lee AG, Brazis PW, Miller NR. Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with migraine. Headache. 1996;36(8):506–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Claes C, Milea D, Bodaghi B, Tran TH, LeHoang P, Blanc R. Acute retrobulbar optic neuropathy due to rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2006;84(1):145–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Hara N, Mukuno K, Ohtaka H, Shimizu K. Ischemic optic neuropathy associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture. Ophthalmologica. 2003;217(1):79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Taravati P, Lee AG, Bhatti MT, Lewis SB. That’s a wrap. Surv Ophthalmol. 2006;51(4):434–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Perlman JI, Forman S, Gonzalez ER. Retrobulbar ischemic optic neuropathy associated with sickle cell disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994;14(1):45–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Chang SH, Miller NR. The incidence of vision loss due to perioperative ischemic optic neuropathy associated with spine surgery: the Johns Hopkins Hospital experience. Spine. 2005;30(11):1299–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Stevens WR, Glazer PA, Kelley SD, Lietman TM, Bradford DS. Ophthalmic complications after spinal surgery. Spine. 1997;22(12):1319–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Cheng MA, Sigurdson W, Tempelhoff R, Lauryssen C. Visual loss after spine surgery: a survey. Neurosurgery. 2000;46(3):625–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Nuttall GA, Garrity JA, Dearani JA, Abel MD, Schroeder DR, Mullany CJ. Risk factors for ischemic optic neuropathy after cardiopulmonary bypass: a matched case/control study. Anesth Analg. 2001;93(6):1410–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Sweeney PJ, Breuer AC, Selhorst JB, et al. Ischemic optic neuropathy: a complication of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Neurology. 1982;32(5):560–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Balm AJ, Brown DH, De Vries WA, Snow GB. Blindness: a potential complication of bilateral neck dissection. J Laryngol Otol. 1990;104(2):154–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Maran AG, Amin M, Wilson JA. Radical neck dissection: a 19-year experience. J Laryngol Otol. 1989;103(8):760–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Nawa Y, Jaques JD, Miller NR, Palermo RA, Green WR. Bilateral posterior optic neuropathy after bilateral radical neck dissection and hypotension. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1992;230(4):301–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Schobel GA, Schmidbauer M, Millesi W, Undt G. Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy following bilateral radical neck dissection. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1995;24(4):283–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Kirkali P, Kansu T. A case of unilateral posterior ischemic optic neuropathy after radical neck dissection. Ann Ophthalmol. 1990;22(8):297–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Marks SC, Jaques DA, Hirata RM, Saunders Jr JR. Blindness following bilateral radical neck dissection. Head Neck. 1990;12(4):342–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Milner GA. A case of blindness after bilateral neck dissection. J Laryngol Otol. 1960;74:880–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Pazos GA, Leonard DW, Blice J, Thompson DH. Blindness after bilateral neck dissection: case report and review. Am J Otolaryngol. 1999;20(5):340–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Moura FC, Cunha LP, Monteiro ML. Bilateral visual loss after liposuction: case report and review of the literature. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2006;61(5):489–91.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Purvin V, Kuzma B. Intraorbital optic nerve signal hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging sequences in perioperative hypotensive ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005;25(3):202–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Vaphiades MS. Optic nerve enhancement in hypotensive ischemic optic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2004;24(3):235–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    McAuley DF, McGurk C, Nugent AG, et al. Vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 is blunted in non-insulin-dependent diabetes: a dose–response study. Clin Sci (Lond). 2000;99:175–9.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Dzau VJ. Tissue angiotensin and pathobiology of vascular disease: a unifying hypothesis. Hypertension. 2001;37:1047–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Practice guidelines for blood component therapy: a report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Blood Component Therapy. Anesthesiology 1996;84(3):732–47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurology, Neuro-OphthalmologyUniversity of Nevada School of MedicineRenoUSA

Personalised recommendations