Sustainable Fruit Production in Mediterranean Orchards Subjected to Drought Stress

  • Adriano Sofo
  • Assunta Maria Palese
  • Teresa Casacchia
  • Bartolomeo Dichio
  • Cristos Xiloyannis


Drought stress is the main cause of reduced fruit tree growth and productivity in Mediterranean semi-arid regions and causes a complex of responses at molecular, cellular, physiological and developmental level. In particular, the response of fruit trees to water scarcity is a species- and cultivar-dependent and a series of studies have been carried out to clarify and deepen the mechanisms of their adaptation, avoidance, resistance or tolerance against drought. Considering that 16% of the total cultivable land of the Mediterranean area is occupied by fruit crops, the choice of an appropriate and rational irrigation management is of key importance. Furthermore, plant water status in an orchard is related to many biotic and abiotic factors, such as the amount of light intercepted, plant densities and canopy architecture, which play a key role in determining orchard productivity and fruit quality. The recent research on the physiology of fruit trees and on soil chemical and biological fertility in fruit orchards have revealed that sustainable and innovative soil management systems, with a particular emphasis on water management (e.g., sustained deficit irrigation, regulated deficit irrigation and partial root-zone drying), can determine an optimal plant nutritional equilibrium, avoid nutrients accumulation and leaching risks, improve irrigation efficiency and prevent soil erosion and root asphyxia. The application, optimization and innovation of sustainable agricultural techniques with a low negative environmental impact allow to recover or increase the normal levels of total fertility in fruit agro-ecosystems, so maintaining top yields of high quality. On this basis, the aim of this work is to give an detailed information on drought stress in fruit trees.


Drought stress Prunus species Olive tree Citrus species Mediterranean fruit species 


  1. Abid N, Lal R (2008) Tillage and drainage impact on soil quality: I. Aggregate stability, carbon and nitrogen pools. Soil Till Res 100:89–98Google Scholar
  2. Aganchich B, El Antari A, Wahbi S, Tahi H, Wakrim R, Serraj R (2008) Fruit and oil quality of mature olive trees under partial rootzone drying in field conditions. Grasas Aceites 59(3):225–233Google Scholar
  3. Aiyelaagbe I, Orodele O (2007) Leaf gas exchange and growth response of juvenile ‘Valencia’ orange trees to dry season irrigation in south western Nigeria. Proceedings conference on international agricultural research for development tropentag 2007. University of Kassel-Witzenhausen and University of Göttingen, Germany, October 9–11, 2007Google Scholar
  4. Alarćon JJ, Domingo R, Green SR, Sánchez-Blanco MJ, Rodríìguez P, Torrecillas A (2000) Sap flow as an indicator of transpiration and the water status of young apricot trees. Plant Soil 227:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allouche N, Fki I, Sayadi S (2004) Toward a high yield recovery of antioxidants and purified hydroxytyrosol from olive mill wastewaters. J Agric Food Chem 52:267–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angelopoulos K, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C (1996) Inhibition of photosynthesis in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) during water stress and rewatering. J Exp Bot 47: 1093–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arndt SK, Wanek W (2002) Use of decreasing foliar carbon isotope discrimination during water limitation as a carbon tracer to study whole plant carbon allocation. Plant Cell Environ 25:609–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arndt SK, Wanek W, Clifford SC, Popp M (2000) Contrasting adaptations to drought stress in fieldgrown Ziziphus mauritiana and Prunus persica trees, water relations, osmotic adjustment and carbon isotope composition. Aust J Plant Physiol 27:985–996Google Scholar
  9. Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1976) Water quality for ­agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29, pp. 1–96Google Scholar
  10. Bedbabis S, Palese AM, Ben Rouina B, Boukhris M, Rhouma A, Gargouri K (2009) The effect of irrigation by treated wastewater on “Chemlali” olive oil quality. J Food Qual 32(2):141–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bellini P (1983) Sovescio. Enciclopedia agraria. REDA, Roma, pp 977–979Google Scholar
  12. Bending GD, Turner MK, Jones JE (2002) Interactions between crop residue and soil organic matter quality and the functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1073–1082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benlloch M, Arboleda F, Barranco D, Fernández-Escobar R (1991) Response of young olive trees to sodium and boron excess in irrigation water. HortScience 26: 867–870Google Scholar
  14. Berenguer MJ, Vossen PM, Grattan SR, Connell JH, Polito VS (2006) Tree irrigation levels for optimum chemical and sensory properties of olive oil. HortScience 41:427–432Google Scholar
  15. Berman ME, DeJong TM (1996) Water stress preconditioning to improve drought resistance in young apricot plants. Tree Physiol 16:859–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Besset J, Génard M, Girard T, Serra V, Bussi C (2001) Effect of water stress applied during the final stage of rapid growth of peach trees (cv. Big-Top). Sci Hortic 91:289–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhantana P, Lazarovitch N (2010) Evapotranspiration, crop coefficient and growth of two young pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties under salt stress. Agric Water Manage 97:715–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boland AM, Jerie PH, Mitchell PD, Goodwin I (2000) Long-term effects of restricted root volume and regulated deficit irrigation on peach I. Growth and mineral nutrition. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 125:135–142Google Scholar
  19. Borken W, Muhs A, Beese F (2002) Changes in microbial and soil properties following compost treatment of degraded temperate forest soils. Soil Biol Biochem 34: 403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Browicz K, Zohary D (1996) The genus Amygdalus L. (Rosaceae): species relationships, distribution and evolution under domestication. Genet Resour Crop Evol 43:229–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Castel JR, Fereres E (1982) Response of young almond trees to two drought periods in the field. J Hortic Sci 57:175–187Google Scholar
  22. Cataldi TR, Margiotta G, Iasi L, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, Bufo SA (2000) Determination of sugar compounds in olive plant extracts by anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Anal Chem 72:3902–3907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Celano G, Palese AM, Xiloyannis C (2002) La gestione sostenibile del suolo nell’albicoccheto. Frutticoltura 3:37–39Google Scholar
  24. Celano G, Palese AM, Xiloyannis C (2003) Gestione del suolo. Olea: Trattato di Olivicoltura. (a cura di Piero Fiorino). Il Sole 24 ORE Edagricole S.r.L., pp. 349–363Google Scholar
  25. Celano G, Palese AM, Parente D, Rizzuti L, Silvestri N (2010) Environmental impact evaluation of olive mill wastewater shedding on cultivated fields. Terr Aquat Environ Toxicol 4(1):39–44Google Scholar
  26. Celano G, Palese AM, Ciucci A, Martorella E, Vignozzi N, Xiloyannis C (2011) Evaluation of soil water content in tilled and cover-cropped olive orchards by the geoelectrical technique. Geoderma 163:163–170Google Scholar
  27. Chalmers DJ, Mitchell PD, van Heek L (1981) Control of peach tree growth and productivity by regulated water supply, tree density and summer pruning. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 106:307–312Google Scholar
  28. Chartzoulakis KS (2005) Salinity and olive: growth, salt tolerance, photosynthesis and yield. Agric Water Manage 78:108–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chaves MM, Maroco JP, Pereira JS (2003) Understanding plant responses to drought – from genes to the whole plant. Funct Plant Biol 30:239–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Crisosto CH, Johnson RS, Luza JG, Crisosto SM (1994) Irrigation regimes affect fruit soluble solids concentration and rate of water loss of ‘O’Henry’ peaches. HortScience 29:1169–1171Google Scholar
  31. Cuevas J, Cañete ML, Pinillos V, Zapata AJ, Fernández MD, González M, Hueso JJ (2007) Optimal dates for regulated deficit irrigation in ‘Algerie’ loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cultivated in Southeast Spain. Agric Water Manage 89:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. d’Andria R, Lavini A, Morelli G, Patumi M, Terenziani S, Calandrelli D, Fragnito F (2004) Effects of water regimes on five pickling and double aptitude olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 79:18–25Google Scholar
  33. d’Andria R, Lavini A, Morelli G, Sebastiani L, Tognetti R (2009) Physiological and productive responses of Olea europaea L. cultivars Frantoio and Leccino to a regulated deficit irrigation regime. Plant Biosyst 1:222–231Google Scholar
  34. Dabbou S, Chehab H, Faten B, Dabbou S, Esposto S, Selvaggini R, Taticchi A, Servili M, Montedoro GF, Hammami M (2010) Effect of three irrigation regimes on Arbequina olive oil produced under Tunisian growing conditions. Agric Water Manage 97:763–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Davies WJ, Bacon MA, Thompson DS, Sobeigh W, Rodriguez LG (2000) Regulation of leaf and fruit growth in plants growing in drying soil: exploitation of the plants’ chemical signalling system and hydraulic architecture to increase the efficiency of water use in agriculture. J Exp Bot 51:1617–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. de Graaff J, Eppink LAAJ (1999) Olive oil production and soil conservation in southern Spain, in relation to EU subsidy policies. Land Use Policy 16:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dichio B, Romano M, Nuzzo V, Xiloyannis C (2002) Soil water availability and relationship between canopy and roots in young olive trees (cv Coratina). Acta Hortic 586:255–258Google Scholar
  38. Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, Sofo A, Montanaro G (2007) Effects of post-harvest regulated deficit irrigation on carbohydrate and nitrogen partitioning, yield quality and vegetative growth of peach trees. Plant Soil 290: 127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dichio B, Margiotta G, Xiloyannis C, Bufo SA, Sofo A, Cataldi RI (2009) Changes in osmolyte levels and water status in leaves and roots of olive plants (Olea europaea L.) subjected to water deficit. Trees Struct Funct 23:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Durán-Zuazo VH, Rodríguez Pleguenzuelo CR, Arroyo Panadero L, Martínez Raya A, Francia Martínez JR, Cárceles Rodríguez B (2009) Soil conservation measures in rainfed olive orchards in south-eastern Spain: impacts of plant strips on soil water dynamics. Pedosphere 19(4):453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dzikiti S, Milford JR, Steppe K, Lemeur R (2006) Water use by young navel orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) in Zimbabwe. Acta Hortic 707:135–141Google Scholar
  42. Dzikiti S, Steppe K, Lemeur R (2008) Partial rootzone drying of drip irrigated ‘Navel’ orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] under semi-arid tropical conditions. Acta Hortic 792:249–256Google Scholar
  43. Egea G, Nortes PA, González-Real MM, Baille A, Domingo R (2010) Agronomic response and water productivity of almond trees under contrasted deficit irrigation regimes. Agric Water Manage 97:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Engin H, Ünal A (2008) The effect of irrigation, gibberellic acid and nitrogen on the occurrence of double fruit in ‘Van’ sweet cherry. Acta Hortic 795:645–650Google Scholar
  45. Escobar-Gutiérrez AJ, Zipperlin B, Carbonne F, Moing A, Gaudillére JP (1998) Photosynthesis, carbon partitioning and metabolite content during drought stress in peach seedlings. Aust J Plant Physiol 25:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Esparza G, DeJong TM, Weinbaum SA (2001) Effects of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period on nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents of dormant, mature almond trees. Tree Physiol 21: 1081–1086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Esparza G, DeJong TM, Weinbaum SA, Klein I (2010) Effects of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period on yield determinants in mature almond trees. Tree Physiol 21:1073–1079Google Scholar
  48. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (1985) Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  49. FAOSTAT (2010)
  50. Fereres E, Soriano MA (2007) Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use. Exp Bot 58(2):147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fernández JE, Diaz-Espejo A, Infante JM, Duran P, Palomo MJ, Chamorro V, Giron IF, Villagarica L (2006) Water relations and gas exchange in olive trees under regulated deficit irrigation and partial rootzone drying. Plant Soil 284:273–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Fernández MD, Hueso JJ, Cuevas J (2010) Water stress integral for successful modification of flowering dates in ‘Algerie’ loquat. Irrig Sci 28:127–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Fleskens L, Stroosnijder L, Ouessar M, De Graaff J (2005) Evaluation of the on-site impact of water harvesting in southern Tunisia. J Arid Environ 62:613–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Foyer CH, Gomez LD, Van Heerdern PDR (2005) Glutathione. In: Smirnoff N (ed) Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in plants. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp 53–66Google Scholar
  55. García Petillo M, Puppo L, Chamorro A, Hayashi R (2004) Effects of drip irrigation on the amount of water and wetted soil volume on “Washington Navel” orange yield. Acta Hortic 646:101–106Google Scholar
  56. García-Tejero I, Romero-Vicente R, Jiménez-Bocanegra J, Martínez-García G, Duran-Zuazo V, Muriel-Fernández J (2010) Response of citrus trees to deficit irrigation during different phenological periods in relation to yield, fruit quality, and water productivity. Agric Water Manage 97:689–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gelly M, Recasens I, Girona J, Mata M, Arbones A, Rufat J, Marsal J (2004) Effects of stage II and postharvest deficit irrigation on peach quality during maturation and after cold storage. J Sci Food Agric 84:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ghrab M, Sahli A, BenMechli N (1998) Reduction in vegetative growth and fruit quality improvement in the peach variety “Carnival” through moderate watering restrictions. Acta Hortic 465:601–608Google Scholar
  59. Gijón MC, Guerrero J, Couceiro JF, Moriana A (2009) Deficit irrigation without reducing yield or nut splitting in pistachio (Pistacia vera cv. Kerman on Pistacia terebinthus L.). Agric Water Manage 96:12–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gijón MC, Gimenez C, Perez-López D, Guerrero J, Couceiro JF, Moriana A (2010) Rootstock influences the response of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Kerman) to water stress and rehydration. Sci Hortic 125:666–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Girona J, Mata M, Fereres E, Goldhamer DA, Cohen M (2002) Evapotranspiration and soil water dynamics of peach trees under water deficits. Agric Water Manag 54:107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Girona J, Gelly M, Mata M, Arbonès A, Rufat J, Marsal J (2005a) Peach tree response to single and combined deficit irrigation regimes in deep soils. Agric Water Manage 72:97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Girona J, Mata M, Marsal J (2005b) Regulated deficit irrigation during the kernel-filling period and optimal irrigation rates in almond. Agric Water Manage 75: 152–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Godini A, Palasciano M, Camposeo S, Pacifico A (2008) A nine-year study on the performance of twelve cherry rootstocks under non-irrigated conditions in Apulia (southern Italy). Acta Hortic 795:191–198Google Scholar
  65. Goldhamer DA (1999) Regulated deficit irrigation for California canning olives. Acta Hortic 474:369–372Google Scholar
  66. Gomes-Laranjo J, Coutinho JP, Galhano V, Cordeiro V (2006) Responses of five almond cultivars to irrigation: photosynthesis and leaf water potential. Agric Water Manage 83:261–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gómez-Rico A, Desamparados Salvador M, La Greca M, Fregapane G (2006) Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management. J Agric Food Chem 54:7130–7136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gonçalbes B, Moutinho-Pereire J, Santos A, Silva AP, Bacelar E, Correia C, Rosa E (2005) Scion-rootstock interaction affects the physiology and fruit quality of sweet cherry. Tree Physiol 26:93–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Govaerts B, Mezzalama M, Sayre KD, Crossa J, Litcher K, Troch V, Vanherck K, De Corte P, Deckers J (2008) Long-term consequences of tillage, residue management, and crop rotation on selected soil microflora groups in the subtropical highlands. Appl Soil Ecol 38:197–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Grattan SR, Berenguer MJ, Connell JH, Polito VS, Vossen PM (2006) Olive oil production as influenced by different quantities of applied water. Agr Water Manage 85:133–140Google Scholar
  71. Grossman YL, DeJong TM (1998) Training and pruning system effects on vegetative growth potential, light interception and cropping efficiency in peach trees. J Am Soc Hort Sci 123:1058–1064Google Scholar
  72. Gruhn P, Goletti F, Yudelman M (2000) Integrated nutrient management, soil fertility, and sustainable agriculture: current issues and future challenges. Food, agriculture, and the environment discussion paper 32. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  73. Hepaksoy S, Kukul YS, Engin H, Erogul D, Aksehirli M (2009) Leafwater potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) under different irrigation levels. Acta Hortic 818:193–198Google Scholar
  74. Hernández AJ, Lacasta C, Pastor J (2005) Effects of different management practices on soil conservation and soil water in a rainfed olive orchard. Agric Water Manage 77:32–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Huang X, Huang H, Gao F (2000) The growth potential generated in citrus fruit under water stress and its relevant mechanisms. Sci Hortic 83:227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hueso JJ, Cuevas J (2008) Loquat as a crop model for successful deficit irrigation. Irrig Sci 26:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Iniesta F, Testi L, Orgaz F, Villalobos FJ (2009) The effects of regulated and continuous deficit irrigation on the water use, growth and yield of olive trees. Eur J Agron 30:258–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Intrigliolo DS, Castel JR (2006) Performance of various water stress indicators for prediction of fruit size response to deficit irrigation in plum. Agric Water Manage 83:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Intrigliolo DS, Nicolas E, Bonet L, Ferrer P, Alarcon JJ, Bartual J (2011) Water relations of field grown Pomegranate trees (Punica granatum) under different drip irrigation regimes. Agric Water Manage 98: 691–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jagadamma S, Lal R, Hoeft RG, Nafziger ED, Adee EA (2008) Nitrogen fertilization and cropping system impacts on soil properties and their relationship to crop yield in the central Corn Belt, USA. Soil Till Res 98:120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Johnson RS, Handley DF, DeJong TM (1992) Long-term response of early maturing peach trees to postharvest water deficits. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 117(881):886Google Scholar
  82. Kaska N (2002) Pistachio nut growing in the Mediterranean basin. Acta Hortic 591:443–455Google Scholar
  83. Kimmins JP (1997) Forest ecology. Pearson Prentice Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Klay S, Charef A, Ayed L, Houman B, Rezgui F (2010) Effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on geochemical properties (saltiness, C, N and heavy metals) of isohumic soils (Zaouit Sousse perimeter, Oriental Tunisia). Desalination 253:180–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Klein I, Esparza G, Weinbaum SA, DeJong TM (2001) Effects of irrigation deprivation during the harvest period on leaf persistence and function in mature almond trees. Tree Physiol 21:1063–1072PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kushwaha CP, Tripathi SK, Singh K (2000) Variations in soil microbial biomass and N availability due to residue and tillage management in a dryland rice agroecosystem. Soil Till Res 56:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lakso AN (1979) Seasonal changes in stomatal response to leaf water potential in apple. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 104:58–60Google Scholar
  88. Lal R (2004) Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change. Geoderma 123:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lavee S, Wodner M (1991) Factors affecting the nature of oil accumulation in fruit of olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. J Hortic Sci 66(5):583–591Google Scholar
  90. Lawand BT, Patil VK, Patil PV (1992) Effect on different water regimes on fruit quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). Acta Hortic 321:677–683Google Scholar
  91. Lecouls AC, Bergougnoux V, Rubio-Cabetas MJ, Bosselut N, Voisin R, Poessel JL, Faurobert M, Bonnet A, Salesses G, Dirlewanger E, Esmenjaud D (2004) Marker-assisted selection for the wide-spectrum resistance to root-knot nematodes conferred by the Ma gene from Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera) in interspecific Prunus material. Mol Breed 13:113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lipecki J, Berbeć S (1997) Soil management in perennial crops: orchards and hop gardens. Soil Till Res 43: 169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lo Bianco R, Rieger M, Sung SS (2000) Effect of drought on sorbitol and sucrose metabolism in sinks and sources of peach. Physiol Plant 108:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lopez A, Pollice A, Lonigro A, Masi S, Palese AM, Cirelli GL, Toscano A, Passino R (2006) Agricultural wastewater reuse in southern Italy. Desalination 187: 323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Luo HJ, Zheng ZB, Luo S, Pan YS, Liu XH (2007) Changes in leaf characters of loquat under repeated drought stress. Acta Hortic 750:417–422Google Scholar
  96. Magliulo V, d’Andria R, Lavini A, Morelli G, Patumi M (2003) Yield and quality of two rain-fed olive cultivars following shifting to irrigation. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 78:15–23Google Scholar
  97. Marquat C, Vandamme M, Gendraud M, Pétel G (1998) Dormancy in vegetative buds of peach, relation between carbohydrate absorption potentials and carbohydrate concentration in the bud during dormancy and its release. Sci Hortic 79:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Marschner P, Kandeler E, Marschner B (2003) Structure and function of the soil microbial community in a long-term fertilizer experiment. Soil Biol Biochem 35:453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Martín-Vertedor AI, Pérez Rodríguez JM, Losada EP, Fereres Castiel E (2011) Interactive responses to water deficits and crop load in olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Morisca). II: Water use, fruit and oil yield. Agric Water Manage, 98:950–958Google Scholar
  100. Matos MC, Rebelo E, Lauriano J, Semedo N, Marques N, Campos PS, Matos A, Veira-da-Silva J (2004) CO2 assimilation and water relations of almond tree (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) cultivars grown under field conditions. Photosynthetica 42:473–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Melgar JC, Mohamed Y, Serrano N, García-Galavís PA, Navarro C, Parra MA, Benlloch M, Fernández-Escobar R (2009) Long term responses of olive trees to salinity. Agric Water Manage 96:1105–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Morales F, Abadía A, Abadía J (2006) Photoinhibition and photoprotection under nutrient deficiencies, drought and salinity. In: Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW III, Matoo AK (eds) Photoprotection, photoinhibition, gene regulation, and environment, advances in photosynthesis and respiration. Springer, The Netherlands, pp 65–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Moriana A, Orgaz F, Pastor M, Fereres E (2003) Yield responses of a mature olive orchard to water deficits. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 128:425–431Google Scholar
  104. Mulas M, D’hallewin G (1997) Fruit quality of four cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) cultivars as influenced by irrigation. Acta Hortic 438:115–122Google Scholar
  105. Mulas M, Mulas G (2004) Utilizzo strategico di piante dei generi Atriplex e Opuntia nella lotta alla desertificazione. Università degli Studi di Sassari, Nucleo di Ricerca sulla Desertificazione. Short and Medium-Term Priority Environmental Action Programme (SMAP), February 2004. Available on:
  106. Naor A, Hupert H, Greenblat Y, Peres M, Kaufman A, Klein I (2001) The response of nectarine fruit size and midday stem water potential to irrigation level in stage III and crop load. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 126:140–143Google Scholar
  107. Neilsen GH, Neilsen D, Kappel F, Toivonen P (2005) Nutrient and water management of high density sweet cherry. Acta Hortic 667:337–344Google Scholar
  108. Nieddu G, Chessa I, Deidda P, Tekle Z (1997) Changes in CAM activity, ABA and PAS in Opuntia ficus-indica as response to drought. Acta Hortic 438:97–104Google Scholar
  109. Nortes PA, Pérez-Pastor A, Egea G, Conejero W, Domingo R (2005) Comparison of changes in stem diameter and water potential values for detecting water stress in young almond trees. Agric Water Manage 77:296–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nortes PA, Gonzalez-Real MM, Egea G, Baille A (2009) Seasonal effects of deficit irrigation on leaf photosynthetic traits of fruiting and non-fruiting shoots in almond trees. Tree Physiol 29:375–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Olesen J, Bindi M (2002) Consequences of climate change for European agricultural productivity, land use and policy. Eur J Agron 16:239–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Orgaz F, Fereres E (2004) Riego. In: Barranco D, Fernández-Escobar R, Rallo L (eds) El cultivo del olivo. Mundi Prensa, Madrid, pp 323–346Google Scholar
  113. Ortuno MF, García-Orellana Y, Conejero W, Pérez-Sarmiento F, Torrecillas A (2009) Assessment of maximum daily trunk shrinkage signal intensity threshold values for deficit irrigation in lemon trees. Agric Water Manage 96:80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ozpinar S, Cay A (2006) Effects of different tillage ­systems on the quality and crop productivity of a clay-loam soil in semi-arid north-western Turkey. Soil Till Res 88:95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Padulosi S, Van Mele P, Caruso T, Kaska N, Barone E (1998) IPRIG’s initiatives for the promotion of better conservation and use of Pistacia spp. genetic resources. Acta Hortic 470:138–142Google Scholar
  116. Palese AM, Celano G, Masi S, Xiloyannis C (2006) Treated municipal wastewater for irrigation of olive trees: effects on yield and oil quality. In: Caruso T, Motisi A, Sebastiani L (eds) Proceedings Olivebioteq 2006 – second international seminar – biotechnology and quality of olive tree products around the Mediterranean Basin – Mazara del Vallo, Italy, November 5th–10th, 2006, Vol. II. pp. 123–129Google Scholar
  117. Palese AM, Celano G, Xiloyannis C (2008) Acque per le fertirrigazioni: reflue, urbane e depurate. Olivo Olio 5:48–53Google Scholar
  118. Palese AM, Agnelli AE, Celano G, Platinetti M, Vignozzi N, Xiloyannis C (2009a) Soil management and soil water balance in a mature rainfed olive orchard. Proceedings Olivebioteq 2009 – Sfax (Tunisia), December 15th – 19th, 2009, in pressGoogle Scholar
  119. Palese AM, Pasquale V, Celano G, Figliuolo G, Masi S, Xiloyannis C (2009b) Irrigation of olive groves in Southern Italy with treated municipal wastewater: effects on microbiological quality of soil and fruits. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129:43–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Palese AM, Nuzzo V, Favati F, Pietrafesa A, Celano G, Xiloyannis C (2010) Effects of water deficit on the vegetative response, yield and oil quality of olive trees (Olea europaea L., cv Coratina) grown under intensive cultivation. Sci Hortic 125(3):222–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pallardy SG (2008) Physiology of woody plants. Academic, San Diego, CAGoogle Scholar
  122. Pardini A, Faiello C, Longhi F, Mancuso S, Snowball R (2002) Cover crop species and their management in vineyards and olive groves. Adv Hortic Sci 16(3–4): 225–234Google Scholar
  123. Pastor M, Castro J, Humanes MD, Muñoz J (2000) Gestione del suolo nell’olivicoltura dell’Andalusia. L’Informatore Agrario 3:83–92Google Scholar
  124. Patumi M, d’Andria R, Fontanazza G, Morelli G, Giorio P, Sorrentino G (1999) yield and oil quality of intensively trained trees of three cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.) under different irrigation regimes. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 74:729–737Google Scholar
  125. Patumi M, d’Andria R, Marsilio V, Fontanazza G, Morelli G, Lanza B (2002) Olive and olive oil quality after intensive monocone olive growing (Olea europaea L., cv. Kalamata) in different irrigation regimes. Food Chem 77:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pérez-Pérez JG, Robles JM, Botía P (2009) Influence of deficit irrigation in phase III of fruit growth on fruit quality in ‘lane late’ sweet orange. Agric Water Manage 96:969–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pimienta-Barrios E, Zanudo J, Yepez E, Pimienta-Barrios E, Nobel PS (2000) Seasonal variation of net CO2 uptake for cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) and pitayo (Stenocereus queretaroensis) in a semi-arid environment. J Arid Environ 44:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ramirez-Fuentes E, Lucho-Constantino C, Escamilla-Silva E, Dendooven L (2002) Characteristics, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soil irrigated with wastewater for different lengths of time. BioresourTechnol 85:179–187Google Scholar
  129. Ranjbarfordoei A, Samson R, Van Damne P, Lemeur E (2000) Effects of drought stress induced by polyethylene glicol on pigment content and photosynthetic gas exchange of Pistacia khinjuk and P. mutica. Photosynthetica 38:443–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ranjbarfordoei A, Samson R, Lemeur E, Van Damne P (2002) Effects of osmotic drought stress induced by a combination of NaCl and polyethylene glycol on leaf water status, photosynthetic gas exchange, and water use efficiency of Pistacia khinjuk and P. mutica. Photosynthetica 40:165–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Rato AE, Agulheiro AC, Barroso JM, Riquelme F (2006) Soil and rootstock influence on fruit quality of plums (Prunus domestica L.). Sci Hortic 118:218–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Rieger M (1995) Offsetting effects of reduced root hydraulic conductivity and osmotic adjustment following drought. Tree Physiol 16:379–385Google Scholar
  133. Rinaldelli E, Mancuso S (1996) Response of young ­mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) to saline conditions. I. Short-term electrophysiological and long-term vegetative salt effect. Adv Hort Sci 10:126–134Google Scholar
  134. Rieger M, Duemmel MJ (1992) Comparison of drought resistance among Prunus species from divergent habitats. Tree Physiol 11:369–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rieger M, Lo Bianco R, Okie WR (2003) Responses of Prunus ferganensis, Prunus persica and two interspecific hybrids to moderate drought stress. Tree Physiol 23:51–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Romero P, Botia P, Garcia F (2004a) Effects of regulated deficit irrigation under subsurface drip irrigation conditions on water relations of mature almond trees. Plant Soil 260:155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Romero P, Botia P, Garcia F (2004b) Effects of regulated deficit irrigation under subsurface drip irrigation conditions on vegetative development and yield of mature almond trees. Plant Soil 260:169–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Romero P, Navarro JM, García F, Botía Ordaz P (2004c) Effects of regulated deficit irrigation during the ­pre-harvest period on gas exchange, leaf development and crop yield of mature almond trees. Tree Physiol 24:303–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Rouhi V, Samson R, Lemeur R, Van Damme P (2007) Photosynthetic gas exchange characteristics in three different almond species during drought stress and subsequent recovery. Environ Exp Bot 59:117–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rugini E, Fedeli E (1990) Olive as an oilseed crop. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Legumes and oilseed crops. Springer, Berlin, pp 593–641Google Scholar
  141. Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Domingo R, Torrecillas A, Pérez-Pastor A (2000a) Water stress preconditioning to improve drought resistance in young apricot plants. Plant Sci 156:245–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ruiz-Sánchez MC, Torrecillas A, Pérez-Pastor A, Domingo R (2000b) Regulated deficit irrigation in apricot trees. Acta Hortic 537:759–766Google Scholar
  143. Ryan D, Antolovich M, Prenzler P, Robards K, Lavee S (2002) Biotransformations of phenolic compounds in Olea europaea L. Sci Hortic 92:147–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Scebba F, Sebastiani L, Vitagliano C (2001) Activities of antioxidant enzymes during senescence of Prunus armeniaca leaves. Biol Plant 44:41–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sedaghat R (2008) Sustainable irrigation for pistachio farms in Iran: an economic analysis. Acta Hortic 769:201–206Google Scholar
  146. Sepaskhah AR, Ahmadi SH (2010) A review on partial root-zone drying irrigation. Int J Plant Prod 4(4): 241–258Google Scholar
  147. Snyman HA (2006) A greenhouse study on root dynamics of cactus pears, Opuntia ficus-indica and O. robusta. J Arid Environ 65:529–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sofo A, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, Masia A (2004a) Effects of different irradiance levels on some antioxidant enzymes and on malondialdehyde content during rewatering in olive tree. Plant Sci 166:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sofo A, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, Masia A (2004b) Lipoxygenase activity and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of olive tree in response to drought stress. Physiol Plantarum 121(1):58–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sofo A, Tuzio AC, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C (2005) Influence of water deficit and rewatering on the components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in four interspecific Prunus hybrids. Plant Sci 169:403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Sofo A, Dichio B, Montanaro G, Xiloyannis C (2009) Shade effect on photosynthesis and photoinhibition in olive during drought and rewatering. Agric Water Manage 96:1201–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Sofo A, Celano G, Ricciuti P, Curci M, Dichio B, Xiloyannis C, Crecchio C (2010a) Changes in composition and activity of soil microbial communities in peach and kiwifruit Mediterranean orchards under an innovative management system. Aust J Soil Res 48:266–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sofo A, Palese AM, Casacchia T, Celano G, Ricciuti P, Curci M, Crecchio C, Xiloyannis C (2010b) Genetic, functional, and metabolic responses of soil microbiota in a sustainable olive orchard. Soil Sci 175(2): 81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Sorkheh K, Shiran B, Rouhi V, Khodambashi M, Sofo A (2011) Regulation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in wild almond during drought stress. Russ J Plant Physiol 58:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Stefanoudaki E, Williams M, Chartzoulakis K, Harwood J (2009) Effect of irrigation on quality attributes of olive oil. J Agric Food Chem 57:7048–7055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Stevenson MT, Shackel KA (1998) Alternate bearing in pistachio as masting phenomenon: construction cost of reproduction versus vegetative growth and storage. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 123:1069–1075Google Scholar
  157. Stikic R, Popovic S, Srdic M, Savic D, Jovanovic, Z, Prokic LJ, Zdravkovic J (2003) Partial root drying (PRD): a new technique for growing plants that saves water and improves the quality of fruit. Bulg J Plant Physiol Special Issue: 164–171.Google Scholar
  158. Stoll M, Loveys B, Dry P (2000) Hormonal changes induced by partial rootzone drying of irrigated grapevine. J Exp Bot 51:1627–1634Google Scholar
  159. Strudley MW, Green TR, Ascough JC II (2008) Tillage effects on soil hydraulic properties in space and time: state of the science. Soil Till Res 99:4–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sulochanamma BN, Yellamanda Reddy T, Subbi Reddy G (2005) Effect of basin and drip irrigation on growth, yield and water use efficiency in pomegranate cv. Ganesh. Acta Hortic 696:277–279Google Scholar
  161. Tajabadipour A, Sepaskhah AR, Maftoun M (2006) Plant water relations and seedlings growth of three pistachio cultivars as influences by irrigation frequency and applied potassium. Acta Hortic 726:317–324Google Scholar
  162. Tarchouna Gharbi L, Merdy P, Raynaud M, Pfeifer HR, Lucas Y (2010a) Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater. Part 1: evolution of soil physicochemical properties. Appl Geochem 25:1703–1710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Tarchouna Gharbi L, Merdy P, Lucas Y (2010b) Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater. Part II: role of organic carbon on Cu, Pb and Cr behaviour. Appl Geochem 25:1711–1721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Tataranni G (2009) Water uptake and transport in olive tree under stress conditions. Thesis in International PhD course. Università degli Studi della Basilicata, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  165. Tattini M, Gucci R, Coradeschi MA, Ponzio C, Everard JD (1995) Growth, gas exchange and ion content in Olea europaea plants during salinity stress and subsequent relief. Physiol Plantarum 95:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Therios I (2009) Olives, vol 18, Crop production science in horticulture. CABI, Wallingford, p 409Google Scholar
  167. Tognetti R, d’Andria R, Lavini A, Morelli G (2006) The effect of deficit irrigation on crop yield and vegetative development of Olea europaea L. (cvs. Frantoio and Leccino). Eur J Agron 25:356–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Tognetti R, d’Andria R, Sacchi R, Lavini A, Morelli G, Alvino A (2007) Deficit irrigation affects seasonal changes in leaf physiology and oil quality of Olea europaea (cultivars Frantoio and Leccino). Ann Appl Biol 150:169–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Torrecillas A, Alarcón JJ, Domingo R, Planes J, Sánchez-Blanco MJ (1996) Strategies for drought resistance in leaves of two almond cultivars. Plant Sci 118: 135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Tovar MJ, Motilva MJ, Romero PM (2001) Changes in the phenolic composition of virgin olive oil from young trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Arbequina) grown under linear irrigation strategies. J Agric Food Chem 49:5502–5508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Tovar MJ, Romero PM, Girona J, Motilva MJ (2002) l-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and concentration of phenolics in developing olive (Olea europaea L cv Arbequina) fruit grown under different irrigation regimes. J Sci Food Agric 82:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Tubeileh A, Bruggeman A, Turkelboom F (2009) Effect of water harvesting on growth of young olive trees in degraded Syrian dryland. Environ Dev Sustain 11: 1073–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Visioli F, Romani A, Mulinacci N, Zarini S, Conte D, Franco F, Galli C (1999) Antioxidant and other biological activities of olive mill waste waters. J Agric Food Chem 47:3397–3401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Visioli F, Galli C, Mogani P (2006) Is olive good for you? In: Caruso T, Motisi A, Sebastiani L (eds) Olivebioteq 2006 – second international seminar – recent advances in olive industry – special seminars and invited lectures. Mazara del Vallo, Italy, November 5th–10th, 2006, pp 255–264Google Scholar
  175. Wahbi S, Wakrim R, Aganchich B, Tahi H, Serraj R (2005) Effects of partial rootzone drying (PRD) on adult olive tree (Olea europaea) in field conditions under arid climate I. Physiological and agronomic responses. Agric Ecosyst Environ 106:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Wang J, Liu J (2009) Change in free polyamine contents and expression profiles of two polyamine biosynthetic genes in citrus embryogenic callus under abiotic stresses. Biotechnol Biotechnolog Equip 23:1289–1293Google Scholar
  177. Weaver LM, Herrmann KM (1997) Dynamic of the shikimate pathway in plants. Trends Plant Sci 2(9): 346–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Widmer F, Rasche F, Hartmann M, Fliessbach A (2006) Community structures and substrate utilization of bacteria in soils from organic and conventional farming systems of the DOK long-term field experiment. Appl Soil Ecol 33:294–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Wiesman Z, Itzhak D, Ben Dom N (2004) Optimization of saline water level for sustainable Barnea olive and oil production in desert conditions. Sci Hortic 100: 257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Wright GC (2008) Evaluation of ten Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) selections under Arizona desert conditions. Acta Hortic 773:77–82Google Scholar
  181. Xiloyannis C, Dichio B, Nuzzo V, Celano G (1999) Defence strategies of olive against water stress. Acta Hortic 474:423–426Google Scholar
  182. Xiloyannis C, Gucci R, Dichio B (2003) Irrigazione. In: Fiorino P (ed) Olea: Trattato di Olivicoltura. Il Sole 24 ORE Edagricole S.r.l., Bologna, Italy, pp 365–389Google Scholar
  183. Xiloyannis C, Massai R, Dichio B (2005) L’acqua e la Tecnica dell’Irrigazione. In: Fideghelli C, Sansavini S (eds) Il Pesco. Edagricole, Bologna, pp 145–171Google Scholar
  184. Xiloyannis C, Dichio B, Montanaro G (2010) Sustainable apricot orchard management to improve soil fertility and water use efficiency. Acta Hortic 862: 419–424Google Scholar
  185. Yadav RK, Goyal B, Shamara RK, Dubey SK, Minhas PS (2002) Post-irrigation impact of domestic sewage effluent on composition of soils, crops and ground water – a case study. Environ Int 28:481–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Yakubov B, Barazani O, Shachack A, Rowland LJ, Shoseyov O, Golan-Goldhirsh A (2005) Cloning and expression of a dehydrin-like protein from Pistacia vera L. Trees 19:224–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Yangui T, Dhouib A, Rhouma A, Sayadi S (2009) Potential of hydroxytyrosol-rich composition from olive mill wastewater as a natural disinfectant and its effect on seeds vigour response. Food Chem 117:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Yoshita K, Takahara T (2004) Effect of water stress on flower-bud formation and plant hormone content of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). Sci Hortic 99:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Zeng DQ, Brown PH, Rosecrance RC (1998) The effects of alternate bearing, soil moisture and gypsum on potassium nutrition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Acta Hortic 470:412–420Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adriano Sofo
    • 1
  • Assunta Maria Palese
    • 1
  • Teresa Casacchia
    • 2
  • Bartolomeo Dichio
    • 1
  • Cristos Xiloyannis
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze dei Sistemi Colturali, Forestali e dell’AmbienteUniversità degli Studi della BasilicataPotenzaItaly
  2. 2.CRA, Centro di Ricerca per l’Olivicoltura e l’Industria OleariaRendeItaly

Personalised recommendations