Unusual Optical Properties of Collagen and Implications for the Primo Vascular System

  • Eduard van Wijk
  • Margo Groeneveld
  • Jan van der Greef
  • Roeland van Wijk
Conference paper

Abstract

The aim of this study was to extend previous investigations on the property of artificially prepared collagen gels to modify ultraweak photon emission emanating from a biological source. The interaction of collagen gels with enzyme-dependent ultra weak photon emission facilitated by the Xanthine oxidase–Xanthine–MCLA (XO–X–MCLA) enzyme system was studied. This enzyme system is frequently associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Collagen was also tested in combination with a light-emitting diode (LED) with similar spectral properties as the XO–X–MCLA system. The data demonstrate that a collagen gel is capable of increasing photon emission of the enzyme system. In contrast, weak photon emission stimulated by a LED was not increased, but rather decreased. It was concluded from these data that collagen may exert a remarkable influence on distant molecular activation wherein chemical and electrical signaling is impossible. This capacity may also have significant consequences for understanding the proposed properties of primo-vessels in their particular role as optical channels throughout a living being.

References

  1. 1.
    Kim BH (1963) On the kyungrak system. J Acad Med Sci 10:1–41Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Han YH, Yang JM, Yoo JS et al (2007) Measurement of the optical properties of in-vitro organ-surface Bonghan corpuscles of rats. J Kor Phys Soc 49:2239–2246Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sasaki N (1984) Dielectric properties of slightly hydrated collagen: time-water content superposition analysis. Biopolymers 23:1724–1734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ho MW, Knight DP (1998) The acupuncture system and the liquid crystalline collagen fibers of the connective tissues. Am J Chin Med 26:251–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pethig R (1996) Dielectrophoresis. Crit Rev Biotechnol 16:331–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mikhailov AS, Ertl G (1996) Nonequilibrium structures in condensed systems. Science 272:1596–1597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ho MW, Musumeci F, Scordino A et al (2002) Delayed luminescence from bovine Achilles’ tendon and its dependence on collagen structure. J Photochem Photobiol B 66:165–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brizhik L, Scordino A, Triglia A et al (2001) Delayed luminescence of biological systems arising from correlated many-soliton states. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 64:031902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Troshina TG, Loochinskaia NN, Van Wijk E et al (2006) Absorption and emission of photons by collagen samples. In: Beloussov LV et al (eds) Biophotonics and coherent systems in biology. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kambayashi Y, Ogino K (2003) Reestimation of the cypridina analogs (MCLA) as a chemiluminescence probe to detect active oxygen species. J Toxicol Sci 28:139–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gurvitsch AG (1926) Das Problem der Zellteillung Physiologish Betrachtet. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Trushin MV (2004) Distant non-chemical communication in various biological systems. Riv Biol 97:409–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Albrecht-Buehler G (1992) Rudimentary form of cellular vision. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:8288–8292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Popp FA, Chang JJ, Gu Q et al (1994) Nonsubstantial biocommunication in terms of Dicke’s theory. In: Ho MW et al (eds) Bioelectrodynamics and Biocommunication. World Scientific Publishing, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shen X, Mei W, Xu X (1994) Activation of neutrophils by a chemically separated but optically coupled neutrophil population undergoing respiratory burst. Experientia 50:963–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Farhadi A, Forsyth C, Banan A et al (2007) Evidence for non-chemical, non-electrical intercellular signalling in intestinal epithelial cells. Bioelectrochemistry 71:142–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduard van Wijk
    • 1
    • 2
  • Margo Groeneveld
  • Jan van der Greef
  • Roeland van Wijk
  1. 1.Sino Dutch Center for Preventive and Personalized MedicineLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Meluna ResearchAmersfoortThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations