Mapping PVS by Molecular Imaging with Contrast Agents

  • Kyung A. Kang
Conference paper


The primo vascular system (PVS) is now verified for its existence in the animal body. Some of its anatomical information and its role for a few diseases were also revealed. One of the important future tasks for better understanding the PVS may be its distribution (map) inside the body. Most studies already performed on the PVS visualization are limited to the vessels on the surface of various organs, and inside the lymph/blood vessels. Thorough mapping of PVS will be valuable because it may reveal the mode of the communication among the organs connected via this system. In addition, the changes in map of the PVS system in the course of disease progression may provide us with important information that can be utilized for better health management. Because the diameters of small PVS vessels are only in the range of tens of micrometers, for existing biomedical imaging modalities to be effective for imaging the system, external agents generating very high contrast combined with highly PVS-specific targeting agent will be required. In this chapter, a futuristic design of a single contrast agent guided by highly PVS-specific targeting molecule for MRI, X-ray/CT, optical, and TEM imaging is discussed.


Contrast Agent Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Organic Fluorophores Plasmon Field Target Contrast Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Kim BH (1963) On the Kyungrak system. J Acad Med Sci 10:1–41Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shin H, Johng H-M, Lee B-C, Cho S-I, Soh K-S, Baik K-Y, J-S YOO, Soh K-S (2005) Feulgen reaction study of novel threadlike structures (Bonghan ducts) on the surfaces of mammalian organs. Anat Rec B New Anat 284:35–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sung B, Kim MS, Lee B-C, Yoo JS, Lee S-H, Kim Y-J, Kim K-W, Soh K-S (2007) Measurement of flow speed in the channels of novel threadlike structures on the surfaces of mammalian organs. Naturwissenschaften 95(2):117–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee B-C, Kim S, Soh K-S (2008) Novel anatomic structures in the brain and spinal cord of rabbit that may belong to the Bonghan system of potential acupuncture meridians. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 1(1):29–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ogay V, Bae KH, Kim KW, Soh K-S (2009) Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2(2):107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kwon J, Baik KY, Lee B-C, Soh K-S, Lee NJ, Kang CJ (2007) Scanning probe microscopy study of microcells from the organ surface Bonghan corpuscle. Appl Phys Lett 90:173903. doi: 10.1063/1.2732183 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee B-C, Bae K-H, Gil-Ja Jhon G-J, Soh K-S (2009) Bonghan system as mesenchymal stem cell niches and pathways of macrophages in adipose tissues. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2(1):79–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baik KY, Ogay V, Jeoung SC, Soh K-S (2009) Visualization of Bonghan microcells by electron and atomic force microscopy. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2(2):124–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoo JS, Kim HB, Ogay V, Lee B-C, Ahn S, Soh K-S (2009) Bonghan ducts as possible pathways for cancer metastasis. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2(2):118–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yoo JS, Kim HB, Won N, Bang J, Kim S, Ahn S, Lee B-C, Soh K-S (2010) Evidence for an additional metastatic route: in vivo imaging of cancer cells in the primo-vascular system around tumors and organs. Mol Imaging Biol 13(3):471–480. doi: 10.1007/s11307-010-0366-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yoo JS, Ayati MH, Kim HB, Zhang W-B, Soh K-S (2010) Characterization of the primo-vascular system in the abdominal cavity of lung cancer mouse model and its differences from the lymphatic system. PLoS One 5(4):e9940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lee C, Seol S-K, Lee B-C, Hing Y-K, Je J-H, Soh K-S (2006) Alcian blue staining method to visualize Bonghan threads inside large caliber lymphatic vessels and X-ray microtomography to reveal their microchannels. Lymphat Res Biol 4:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee B-C, Soh K-S (2008) Contrast-enhancing optical method to observe a Bonghan duct floating inside a lymph vessel of a rabbit. Lymphology 41:178–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cassidy PJ, Radda GK (2005) Molecular imaging perspectives. J R Soc Interface 2:133–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Culver J, Akers W, Achilefu S (2008) Multimodality molecular imaging with combined optical and SPECT/PET modalities. J Nucl Med 49:169–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vande Velde G, Baekelandt V, Dresselaers T, Himmelreich UQ (2009) Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy methods for molecular imaging. J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 53(6):565–585Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Davis ME, Chen Z, Shin DM (2008) Nanoparticle therapeutics: an emerging treatment modality for cancer. Nat Rev Drug Discov 7:771–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jiang W, Kim BYS, Rutka JT, Chan WCW (2008) Nanoparticle-mediated cellular response is size-dependent. Nat Nanotechnol 3:145–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Benson RC, Kues HA (1978) Fluorescence properties of indocyanine green as related to angiography. Phys Med Biol 23:159–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kang KA, Hong B (2006) Biocompatible nano-metal particle fluorescence enhancers. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 16:45–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang J, Nantz MH, Achilefu S, Kang KA (2010) FRET-like fluorophore-nanoparticle complex for highly specific cancer localization. Adv Exp Med Biol 662:407–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Neeves AE, Birnboim MH (1989) Composite structures for the enhancement of nonlinear-optical susceptibility. J Opt Soc Am B 6:787–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bharadwaj P, Anger P, Novotny L (2007) Nanoplasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence. Nanotechnology 18:044017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Achilefu S, Dorshow R, Bugaj J, Rajagopalan R (2000) Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging. Invest Radiol 35:479–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hainfeld JF, Slatkin DN, Focella TM, Smilowitz HM (2006) Gold nanoparticles: a new X-ray contrast agent. Br J Radiol 79:248–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xu C, Tung GA, Sun S (2008) Size and concentration effect of gold nanoparticles on X-ray attenuation as measured on computed tomography. Chem Mater 20(13):4167–4169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Popovtzer R, Agrawal A, Kotov NA, Popovtzer A, Balter J, Carey TE, Kopelman R (2008) Targeted gold nanoparticles enable molecular CT imaging of cancer. Nano Lett 8(12):4593–4596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li J, Chaudhary A, Chmura SJ, Pelizzari C, Rajh T, Wietholt C, Kurtoglu M, Aydogan B (2010) A novel functional CT contrast agent for molecular imaging of cancer. Phys Med Biol 55(15):4389–4397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weissleder R, Elizondo G, Wittenberg J, Babito CA, Bengele HH, Josephson L (1990) Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide: characterization of a new class of contrast agents for MR imaging. Radiology 175:489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hoehn M, Wiedermann D, Justicia C, Ramos-Cabrer P, Kruttwig K, Farr T, Himmelreich U (2007) Cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging. J Physiol 584(pt 1):25–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Flint JJ, Lee CH, Hansen B, Fey M, Schmidig D, Bui JD, King MA, Vestergaard-Poulsen P, Blackband SJ (2009) Magnetic resonance microscopy of mammalian neurons. Neuroimage 46(4):1037–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hilger I, Hergt R, Kaiser WA (2005) Use of magnetic nanoparticle heating in the treatment of breast cancer. IEE Proc Nanobiotechnol 152(1):33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations