Observation of the Primo Vascular System on the Fascia of Dogs

Conference paper


Trypan blue is known to be preferentially effective for a primo vascular system (PVS) compared to blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, or adipose tissues. We observed the PVS of the dog in various membrane structures, such as the mesentery, peritoneum, and omentum, by using the Trypan blue technique. The freely movable PVS did not adhere to the surfaces or wrap membranes of internal organs. The features of the PVS, such as the distribution of rod-shaped nuclei and the bundle structure, were observed, as expected from previous reports on rabbits, rats, and mice.


Ethidium Bromide Trypan Blue Small Animal Ethidium Bromide Trypan Blue Staining 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the Association of Korean Oriental Medicine.


  1. 1.
    Lee BC, Woo Kim Ki, Soh KS et al (2009) Visualizing the network of Bonghan ducts in the omentum and peritoneum by using Trypan blue. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2(1):66–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fujiwara S, Yu SB (1967) ‘Bonghan theory’ morphological studies. Igaku no Ayumi 60:567–577Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim BH (1963) On the Kyungrak system. J Acad Med Sci DPR Kor 90:1–35Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Soh KS (2009) Bonghan circulatory system as an extension of acupuncture meridians. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 2(2):93–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ogay V, Bae KH, Kim KW et al (2009) Comparison of the characteristic features of Bonghan ducts, blood and lymphatic capillaries. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 2(2):107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yi SS, Hwang IK, Kim MS et al (2009) The origin of endothelial cells in novel structures, Bonghan ducts and Bonghan corpuscles determined using immunofluorescence. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 2(3):190–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee KJ, Kim S, Jung TE et al (2004) Unique duct system and the node-like structures found on the surface of the liver. J Int Soc Life Info Sci 22:460–462Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yoo JS, Hossein Ayati M, Kim HB et al (2010) Characterization of the primo-vascular system in the abdominal cavity of lung cancer mouse model and its differences from the lymphatic system. PloS One 5(4):e9940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of the Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary MedicineNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations