The morphology of the orchid flower and the strategies orchids employ to attract pollinators are described. The types of breeding systems found in North American orchids are introduced along with the concept of pollinator syndromes and functional groups.


Breeding system Pollinator syndrome Functional group Deceit Mimicry Magnet species Competition Pollinator attraction Floral morphology 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Biological SciencesUniversity of MinnesotaSaint PaulUSA

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