Carotid Subclavian Bypass
Symptomatic proximal subclavian stenosis, “subclavian steal syndrome.” Vertebrobasilar symptoms: Visual disturbances, vertigo, ataxia, dysphagia, dysarthria, transient hemiparesis, and hemisensory disturbances. Upper-extremity ischemic symptoms: Fatigue on exertion, rest pain, microembolic disease. “Coronary steal syndrome” [associated with left internal mammary artery (LIMA) coronary grafts]. Debranching procedure prior to TEVAR.