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Ethno-Cultural Conflict in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Balancing Indigenous Rights and Multicultural Responsibilities

Chapter
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

New Zealand Chapter Summary

Ward and Liu present the historical origins of interethnic relations in New Zealand between the Maori and Pakeha and the development of bicultural relations. Further discussion delineates the immigration of several different ethnic groups into New Zealand over the past century, creating a more complex demographic. Existent ideals of the general population reveal signs of tolerance and harmony between ethnic groups. Improvements for the future that will provide the greatest benefit for all New Zealanders are suggested.

Description of colonization reveals initial conflicts over land which was originally guaranteed to remain with the original owners. Recognition of Maori displacement and forced assimilation into cities reveals an early loss of indigenous culture. Protest movements are presented as engendering revival of culture and revision of the initial treaty to include tribal self-management, equality for all, cooperation, and redress. Historical review of the government responses to arrivals of various immigrant groups demonstrates discrimination and European preference. Ward and Liu explain that while these policies have changed, discrimination is still present in many areas. The authors express the view that relative deprivation and relative advantage have increased negative attitudes between groups. Discussion of recent research reveals the prevalence of multicultural ideology in New Zealand today and factors associated with positive attitudes are described. Research is also cited which reflects a preference for integration, but unwillingness to accommodate other cultural practices.

In exploring means to improve ethnic relations, the authors identify the blending of biculturalism and multiculturalism as necessary given the special circumstances in New Zealand. Recent government initiatives are noted to have provided services to help equalize immigrants, particularly the recently proposed Multi-cultural cultural Act which provides recognition of Maori status, cultural maintenance, and participation for all groups.

Cheryl Jorgensen

Keywords

National Identity Immigration Policy Relative Deprivation European Descent Chinese Immigrant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Glossary of Maori Terms

Hapu

Subdivision of iwi, a subtribe determined by genealogical descent

Hikoi

Protest march

Hui

A meeting, often on a marae

Iwi

Tribe, sometimes under a paramount chief

Kaitiakitanga

Guardianship of the environment, ensuring balance between nature and communities

Kawanatanga

Governorship

Kohanga reo

Preschool Maori language centers, also called Maori language nests

Kura kaupapa

Maori language primary schools

Manaakitanga

Looking after people and nurturing positive relationships, Maori hospitality

Marae

Maori meeting house

Nga Tamatoa

The Warriors, a Maori activist group

Pakeha

Non-Maori persons, typically used to refer to people of European descent

Te Papa Tongarewa

Container of treasures, Aotearoa/New Zealand’s national museum

Te Puni Kokiri

Ministry of Maori Development

Te reo

The Maori language

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Treaty of Waitangi

Tino rangatiratanga

Self-determination, also translated as sovereignty, sometimes used to refer to Maori independence

Waka

Large canoe

Whanau

Extended family

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Applied Cross-cultural ResearchVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand

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