Clinical Detection of Malingering

Chapter

Abstract

Before addressing the issue of clinical approaches to detection of malingering, it is relevant to define the terms as they will be pursued. Clinical approaches as discussed in this chapter refer primarily to nonactuarial, nonstatistical approaches that rely on (1) clinical observations; (2) consideration of congruence (or lack of the same) among cognate abilities and relationship (or lack) among diverse tests or measures related to function of given cortical areas of functional systems; and (3) contextual phenomena such as patient expectancies and examiner instructions or comments. The exclusion of specific actuarial and statistical approaches reflects no disdain for their utility, but rather a recognition that the complex factors in those approaches properly belong in the purview of those neuroscientist practitioners specializing in such matters, who have covered these topics elsewhere in this volume.

Keywords

Fatigue Depression Posit Arena Defend 

References

  1. Abwender, D. A., Swan, J. G., Bowerman, J. T., & Connolly, S. W. (2001). Quantitative analysis of verbal fluency output: Review and comparison of several scoring methods. Assessment, 8, 323–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Neurological Society. (2006). Abstracts from the 131st annual meeting of the American Neurological Society: 35th annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society. Annals of Neurology, 60 (Supplement 10).Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, C. V., & Bigler, E. D. (1994). Ventricular dilation as a predictor of cognitive outcome [Abstract]. Archives of Neuropsychology, 9, 106.Google Scholar
  4. Axelrod, B. N., & Rawlings, D. B. (1999). Clinical utility of incomplete effect WAIS-R formulas: A longitudinal examination of individuals with traumatic brain injuries. Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology, 1, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauer, L., & McCaffrey, R. J. (2006). Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test and Word Memory Test on the Internet: Is test security transferred? Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 121–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bender, S. D., & Rogers, R. (2004). Detection of neurocognitive feigning: Development of a multi-strategy assessment. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19(1), 49–60.Google Scholar
  7. Benton, A. L. (1977). Interactive effects of age and brain disease on reaction time. Archives of Neurology, 34, 369–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benton, A. L., & Spreen, O. (1961). Visual memory test: The simulation of incompetence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernard, L., & Fowler, W. (1990). Assessing the validity of memory complaints: Performance of brain damaged and normal individuals on Rey’s task to detect malingering. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 432–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernat, J. L. (1994). Ethical issues in neurology. Boston, MA: Butterworths–Heinemann.Google Scholar
  11. Bianchini, K. T., Mathis, C. W., & Greve, K. W. (2001). Symptom validity testing: A critical review. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 15, 19–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bigler, E. D., & Snyder, J. L. (1995). Neuropsychological outcome and quantitative neuroimaging in mild head injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 10, 159–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Binder, L. M. (1993a). Assessment of malingering after mild head trauma with the Portland Digit Recognition Test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 170–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Binder, L. M. (1993b). Assessment of malingering after mild head trauma with the Portland Digit Recognition Test: Erratum. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 852.Google Scholar
  15. Brady, J. P., & Lund, D. L. (1961). Experimental analysis of hysterical blindness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 331–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bruhn, P., & Parsons, O. A. (1977). Reaction time variability in epileptic and bran damaged patients. Cortex, 13, 373–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Charcot, J. M. (1888). Lecons du Mardi: Polyclinique 1887–1888. Paris: Bureaux du Progres Medical.Google Scholar
  18. Charter, R. (1994). Determining random responding for the Category, Speech-Sounds Perception, and Seashore Rhythm Tests. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 744–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cloninger, C. R., Reich, T., & Guze, S. (1975). The multifactorial model of disease transmission: III. Familial relationship between sociopathy and hysteria patients with cerebellar disease as a function of length and constancy of preparatory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 14, 391–397.Google Scholar
  20. Corey-Brown, J. (1996). Dementia update: The American Academy of neurology practice parameters for the evaluation of dementia. Paper presented at the American Academy of Neurology, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  21. Costa, L. D., & Vaughan, H. G. (1962). Performance of patients with lateralized cerebral lesions, I: Verbal and perceptual tests. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 134(20), 162–168.Google Scholar
  22. Cullum, C. M., Heaton, R. K., & Grant, I. (1991). Psychogenic factors influencing neuropsychological performance: Somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering. In H. O. Doerr & A. S. Carlin (Eds.), Forensic neuropsychology: Legal and scientific basis (pp. 141–171). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Donchin, E., & Lindsley, D. B. (1966). Average evoked potentials and reaction times to visual stimuli. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 20, 217–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dunn, T. M., Shear, P. K., Howe, S., & Ris, M. D. (2003). Detecting neuropsychological malingering: Effects of coaching and information. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 121–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Flor-Henry, P., Fromm-Auch, D., Tapper, M., & Schopflacher, D. (1981). A neuropsychological study of the stable syndrome of hysteria. Biological Psychiatry, 16, 601–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Frazier, T. W., Youngstrom, E. A., Naugle, R. I., Haggerty, K. A., & Busch, R. M. (2007). The latent structure of cognitive symptom exaggeration on the Victorian Symptom Validity Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, 197–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Goebel, R. A. (1983). Detection of faking on the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 731–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goetz, C. G. (2007). J-M Charcot and simulated neurologic disease. Neurology, 69, 103–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Goetz, C. G., Bonduelle, M., & Gelfand, T. (1995). Charcot: Constructing neurology. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Goldberg, J. O., & Miller, H. R. (1986). Performance of psychiatric patients and intellectually deficient individuals on a test that assesses the validity of memory complaints. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 792–895.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., Mathias, C. W., Houston, R. J., & Crouch, J. A. (2003). Detecting malingered performances on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Validation of Mittenberg’s approach in traumatic brain injury. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 245–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Grosz, H. J., & Zimmerman, J. (1965). Experimental analysis of hysterical blindness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 13(3), 255–260.Google Scholar
  33. Grouvier, W. D., Uddo-Crane, M., & Brown, L. M. (1988). Base rates of post concussional symptoms. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 3, 273–278.Google Scholar
  34. Guze, S. B., Woodruff, R. A., & Clayton, P. A. (1971). A study of conversion symptoms in psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 643–646.Google Scholar
  35. Hamsher, K. S., & Benton, A. L. (1977). The reliability of time determinates deficits on neuropsychological testing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 892–900.Google Scholar
  36. Hartlage, L. C., & Green, J. B. (1973). The EEG as a predictor of intellective and academic performance. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 6(4), 42–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hartlage, L. C., & Johnson. (2002). How common is malingering in litigated cases? In Paper presented at the National Academy of Neurology, Miami, FL.Google Scholar
  38. Hays, J. R., Emmons, J., & Larson, K. A. (1993). Psychiatric norms for the Rey 15-Item Visual Memory Test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76, 1331–1334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Heaton, R. K., Smith, H. H., Jr., Lehman, R. A., & Vogt, A. T. (1978). Prospects for faking believable deficits on neuropsychological testing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 892–900.Google Scholar
  40. Holmquist, L. A., & Wanlass, R. C. (2002). A multidimensional approach towards malingering detection. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 143–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hutsman, R. E. (1974). Response latency and movement time in unilateral cerebral dysfunction. Dissertation Abstracts International, 34(ILB), 5680.Google Scholar
  42. Inman, T. H., & Berry, D. T. R. (2002). Cross validation of instances of malingering of nine neuropsychology tests, four tests of malingering, and behavioral observations. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 1–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Iverson, G.L., & Franzen, M. D. (1991a ). Applying several objective measures to the detection of malingered memory deficits. Paper presented at the National Academy of Neuropsychology, Dallas, TX.Google Scholar
  44. Iverson, G. L., Franzen, M. D., & McCracken, L. M. (1991b). Evaluation of an objective assessment technique for the detection of malingered memory deficits. Law and Human Behavior, 15, 667–676.Google Scholar
  45. Iverson, G., Myers, B., & Adams, R. (1994). Specificity of the category test for detecting malingering. In Paper presented at the National Academy of Neurology, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  46. Iverson, G. L., Franzen, M. D., & McCracken, L. M. (1994). Application of a forced-choice memory procedure designed to detect experimental malingering. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 9, 437–450.Google Scholar
  47. Keen, W. W., Mitchell, S. W., & Morehouse, G. R. (1864). On malingering, especially in regard to simulation of diseases of the nervous system. American Journal of Medical Sciences, 48, 367–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keiser, L. (1968). The traumatic neurosis. Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  49. Kendel, B., & Jablensky, K. (2003). Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 4–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kiester, P. D., & Duke, A. D. (1999). It is malingering or is it rest? Postgraduate Medicine, 106(7), 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Larabee, G. J. (2003). Detection of malingering using atypical performance patterns on standard neuropsychological tests. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 17, 410–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee, G. P., Loring, D. W., & Martin, R. C. (1992). Rey’s IS-Item Visual Memory Test for the detection of malingering: Normative observations on patients with neurological disorders. Psychological Assessment, 4, 43–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lees-Haley, P. R., English, L. T., & Glen, W. J. (1991). A fake-bud scale on the MMPI-2 for personalizing claimants. Psychological Reports, 68, 203–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lees-Haley, P. R., & Brown, R. S. (1993). Neuropsychological complaint base rates of 170 personal injury claimants. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 8, 203–209.Google Scholar
  55. Matthews, C. G., Shaw, D. J., & Klove, H. (1966). Psychological test performances in neurologic and “pseudoneurologic” subjects. Cortex, 2, 244–253.Google Scholar
  56. Mendelson, G. (1987). Accident neurosis. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  57. Meyers, J. E., Mills, S. R., & Volkert, K. (2002). A validity index for the MMPI-2. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 157–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Meyers, J. E., & Volbrecht, M. E. (2003). A validation of multiple malingering detection methods in a large clinical sample. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 261–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Miller, H., & Cartlidge, N. (1972). Simulation and malingering after injuries to the brain and spinal cord. Lancet, 1, 580–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Millis, S., Putnam, S., & Adams, K. (1995). Speech-Sounds Perception Test and Seashore Rhythm Test as validity indicators in the neuropsychological evaluation of mild head injury. Paper presented at the National Academy of Neuropsychology, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  61. Millis, S. R., Ross, S. R., & Ricker, J. H. (1998). Detection of incomplete effort on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised: A cross-validation. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 167–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mitchell, S. W. (1885). Lectures on diseases of the nervous system, especially in women. Philadelphia: Lea Brothers and Company.Google Scholar
  63. Mittenberg, W., Rotholic, A., Russell, E., & Heilbronner, R. (1996). Idenification of malingered head injury on the Halstead-Reitan Battery. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11(4), 271–281.Google Scholar
  64. Mittenberg, W., Theroux, S., Aqulia-Puentes, G., Bianchini, K., & Rayls, K. (2001). Identification of malingered head injury on the wechsler adult intelligence scale (3rd ed.). The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 15(4), 44–45.Google Scholar
  65. Morey, L. C. (1990). Essentials of PAI assessment. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. National Academy of Neuropsychology. (2006). Abstracts from the 26th annual meeting. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 2116.Google Scholar
  67. Othmer, E., & Othmer, S. (1994). The clinical interview using DMS-IV: Volume 2. The difficult patient. Washington: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  68. Palmer, B., Boone, K., Lesser, I., & Wohl, W. (1995). Deficient neuropsychological test performance among healthy older adults. Paper presented at the National Academy of Neuropsychology, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  69. Pankratz, L. (1983). A new technique for the assessment and modification of feigned memory deficit. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, 367–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perley, M. J., & Guze, S. B. (1962). Hysteria-the stability and usefulness of clinical criteria. A quantitative study based on a follow-up of six to eight years in 39 patients. The New England Journal of Medicine, 266, 421–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pincus, J. H., & Tucker, G. J. (1985). Behavioral neurology (3rd ed.). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Powell, M. R., Gfeller, J. D., Hendrick, B. L., & Sharland, M. (2004). Detecting symptom- and test-coached simulators with the test of memory malingering. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 693–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Price, J. R. (1995). Identification of malingering and symptom exaggeration. In Workshop presented at the National Academy of Neuropsychology meeting, November, Orlando, Florida.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reitan, R. (1955). An investigation of the validity of Halstead’s measures of biological intelligence. Archives of Neurological Psychiatry, 73, 28–35.Google Scholar
  75. Reitan, R., & Wolfson, D. (1985). The Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery: Theory and clinical interpretation. Tucson: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  76. Reitan, R. M., & Wolfson, D. (2000). Conation: A neglected aspect of neuropsychological functioning. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 15, 443–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Reitan, R. M., & Wolfson, D. (2004). The differential effect of conation on intelligent test scores among brain-damaged and control subjects. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 1929–1935.Google Scholar
  78. Reitan, R. M., & Wolfson, D. (2005). The effect of conation in determining differential variance between brain-damaged and non-brain-damaged persons across a wide range of neuropsychological tests. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 957–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rey, A. (1941). L’examen psycologique dans les cas d’encephalopathie traumatique. Archives de Psychologie, 28, 286–340.Google Scholar
  80. Rey, A. (1964). L’examen clinique en psychologie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  81. Ross, T. P. (2003). The reliability of cluster and switch scores for the controlled Oral Word Association Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 153–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Ross, T. P., Weinberg, M., Furr, A. E., Carten, S. E., Evans-Blake, L. A., & Parham, S. (2005). The temporal stability of cluster and switch scores using a modified COWAT procedure. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 983–996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rourke, B. P. (1972). Age differences in auditory reaction time of brain-damaged and normal children under regular and irregular preparatory interval. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 14, 372–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ruchinskas, R. A., Barth, J. T., & Diamond, R. (1995). Forced-choice paradigms and the detection of somatosensory symptom exaggeration. Paper presented at the National Academy of Neuropsychology, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  85. Schiffer, R. (1996). A bedside mental status examination. Paper presented at the American Academy of Neurology, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  86. Schmidt, N. B., Kotov, R. F., & Joiner, T. E. (2004). Taxometrics: Toward a new diagnostic scheme for psychopathology. Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schretlen, D., Brandt, J. F., Krafft, L., & Van Gorp, W. (1991). Some caveats in using the Rey 15-Item Memory Test to detect malingered amnesia. Psychological Assessment, 3, 667–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Wilkinson, A., & Wellington, T. M. (2005). Evaluating and using just in time approaches to neuropsychological assessment. In R. C. De Amato, E. Fletcher-Jant Zen, & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of school neuropsychology (pp. 287–302). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Slick, D. J., Sherman, E. M. S., & Iverson, G. L. (1999). Diagnostic criteria for malingering neurocognitive dysfunction: Proposed standards for clinical practice and research. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 13, 545–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Slick, D. J., Tan, J. E., Strauss, E. H., & Hultsch, D. F. (2004). Detecting malingering: A survey of experts’ practices. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 465–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sternberg, S. (1969). Memory scanning: Mental processing revealed by reaction-time experiments. American Scientist, 57, 421–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Tenhula, W. N., & Sweet, J. J. (1994). Identifying malingering through analysis of multiple components of the category test. In Paper presented at the International Neuropsychological Society, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  93. Tombaugh, T. N. (1996). Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Toronto: Multi-Heath Systems.Google Scholar
  94. Tombaugh, T. N., & Rees, L. (2000). Manual for computerized test of memory malingering processing (CTIP). Ottawa: Carleton University.Google Scholar
  95. Tsushima, W. T., & Wedding, D. (1979). A comparison of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery and computerized tomography in the identification of brain damage. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 167, 704–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. VanZomeran, A. H. (1981). Reaction time and attention after closed head injury. Lisse: Swets and Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  97. Wechsler, D. A. (1981). Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  98. Wechsler, D. A. (1997). Wechsler adult intelligence scale-III. New York: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  99. Wiggins, E., & Brandt, J. (1988). The detection of simulated amnesia. Law and Human Behavior, 12, 57–78.Google Scholar
  100. Williams, D. T. (2005). Somatoform disorders. In L. P. Rowland (Ed.), Merritt’s neurology (11th ed., pp. 1142–1150). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  101. Wilson, J., & Tombaugh, T. N. (2006). Detecting simulation of attention deficits using reaction time. Archives of Clinical neuropsychology, 21(1), 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Witsken, D., D’ Amato, R. K., & Hartlage, L. C. (2008). Understanding the past, present, and future of clinical neuropsychology. In R. C. D’ Amato & L. C. Hartlage (Eds.), Essentials of neuropsychological assessment: Treatment planning. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  103. Youngblood, J. (1995). Confirmed attorney coaching prior to neuropsychological evaluation. Assessment, 2, 279–283.Google Scholar
  104. Ziskin, J., & Faust, D. (1988). Coping with psychiatric and psychological testimony (Vols. 1–3). Venice: Law and Psychology Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Augusta Neuropsychology CenterAugustaUSA

Personalised recommendations