Parents as Agents of HIV Prevention for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth

Chapter

Abstract

Young men who have sex with men (MSM) account for the majority of HIV infections among young people in the United States and young women who have sex with women and men can also become infected with HIV. While family-based approaches have been established for other groups of youth, very few have been developed and tested with sexual minority youth. This chapter reviews evidence for the feasibility of developing family-based programs for these youth as well some of the factors that should be incorporated into such an approach.

Keywords

Depression 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Dr. Mustanski would like to acknowledge the support of NIMH for supporting Project Q (PI: Garofalo; R03MH070812) and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, William T Grant Foundation, and David Bohnett Foundation for supporting Project Q2 (PI: Mustanski). He would also like to acknowledge the collaborations of Drs. Garofalo, Donenberg, Kuhns, and his research staff in the IMPACT Program, including Erin Emerson, Steve Garcia, Louisa Bigelow, Michael Newcomb, and Katherine Samuels. Thanks to all of the youth who have participated in the research described here and for the youth services provided by Howard Brown Health Center.

Dr. Hunter would like to acknowledge the Hetrick-Martin Institute for their continuing work with LGBT youth in New York City.

References

  1. Baernstein A, Bostwick WB, Carrick KR, Dunn PM, Goodman KW, Hughes TL, et al. Lesbian and bisexual women’s public health. In: Shankle MD, editor. The handbook of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender public health: a practitioner’s guide to service. New York: Harrington Park Press; 2006. p. 87–109.Google Scholar
  2. Blake SM, Ledsky R, Lehman T, Goodenow C, Sawyer R, Hack T. Preventing sexual risk behaviors among gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents: the benefits of gay-sensitive HIV instruction in schools. Am J Public Health. 2001;91(6):489–93.Google Scholar
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Trends in HIV/AIDS diagnoses among men who have sex with men – 33 states, 2001–2006. MMWR Morb Mortality Wkly Rep. 2008;57(25):681–6.Google Scholar
  4. Celentano DD, Sifakis F, Hylton J, Torian LV, Guillin V, Koblin BA. Race/ethnic differences in HIV prevalence and risks among adolescent and young adult men who have sex with men. J Urban Health. 2005;82(4):610–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan CS. Issues of identity development among Asian-American lesbians and gay men. J Counsel Dev. 1989;68:16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. D’Augelli AR, Hershberger SL. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth in community settings: personal challenges and mental health problems. Am J Community Psychol. 1993;21(4): 421–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D’Augelli AR, Grossman AH, Starks MT. Parents’ awareness of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths’ sexual orientation. J Marriage Fam. 2005;67(2):474–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dube EM, Savin-Williams RC. Sexual identity development among ethnic sexual-minority male youths. Dev Psychol. 1999;35(6):1389–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Egan PJ, Edelman MS, Sherrill K. Findings from the Hunter college poll of lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: new discoveries about identity, political and civic engagement. New York: Hunter College, the City University of New York; 2008.Google Scholar
  10. Floyd FJ, Bakeman R. Coming-out across the life course: implications of age and historical ­context. Arch Sex Behav. 2006;35(3):287–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garofalo R, Harper GW. Not all adolescents are the same: addressing the unique needs of gay and bisexual male youth. Adolesc Med. 2003;14(3):595–611, vi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Garofalo R, Mustanski B, Donenberg G. Parents know and parents matter; is it time to develop family-based HIV prevention programs for young men who have sex with men? J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(2):201–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gomez C. Lesbians at risk for HIV: the unresolved debate. In: Herek GM, Green B, editors. AIDS, identity, and community: the HIV epidemic and lesbians and gay men, vol. 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1995. p. 19–30.Google Scholar
  14. Hall HI, Byers RH, Ling Q, Espinoza L. Racial/ethnic and age disparities in HIV prevalence and disease progression among men who have sex with men in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(6):1060–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Harawa NT, Greenland S, Bingham TA, Johnson DF, Cochran SD, Cunningham WE, et al. Associations of race/ethnicity with HIV prevalence and HIV-related behaviors among young men who have sex with men in 7 urban centers in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;35(5):526–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harper GW. Sex isn’t that simple: culture and context in HIV prevention interventions for gay and bisexual male adolescents. Am Psychol. 2007;62:806–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Herbst JH, Sherba RT, Crepaz N, Deluca JB, Zohrabyan L, Stall RD, et al. A meta-analytic review of HIV behavioral interventions for reducing sexual risk behavior of men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;39(2):228–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Herek GM, Gonzalkez-Rivera M. Attitudes toward homosexuality among U.S. residents of Mexican descent. J Sex Res. 2006;43(2):122–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Herek GM, Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian and Gay Issues. Stigma and sexual orientation: understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 1998.Google Scholar
  20. Hershberger SL, D’Augelli AR. The impact of victimization on the mental health and suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. Dev Psychol. 1995;31(1):65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hill M. Lesbian AIDS project, GMHC. Interview. New York: GMHC; 2006.Google Scholar
  22. Hunter J, Alexander P. Women who sleep with women. In: Ankrah M, Long LD, editors. Women’s experiences with HIV/AIDS: an international perspective. New York: Columbia University Press; 1996. p. 43–55.Google Scholar
  23. Hunter J, Baer J. HIV prevention and care for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender youths: “best practices” from existing programs and policies. In: Meyer IH, Northridge ME, editors. The health of sexual minorities: public health perspectives on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations. New York: Springer; 2007. p. 653–92.Google Scholar
  24. Hunter J, Schaecher R. Gay and lesbian adolescents, Encyclopedia of social work, vol. 19. Washington, DC: NASW Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  25. Hunter J, Cohall A, Mallon G, Moyer MB, Riddel J. Health Care Delivery and Public Health Related to GLBT Youth and Young Adults. In: Shankle MD, Mallon D, editors. The handbook of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender public health: a practitioner’s guide to services. New York: Routledge; 2006. p. 221–45.Google Scholar
  26. LaSala MC. Parental influence, gay youths, and safer sex. Health Soc Work. 2007;32(1):49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loue S. Preventing HIV, eliminating disparities among Hispanics in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2006;8(4):313–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lyles CM, Kay LS, Crepaz N, Herbst JH, Passin WF, Kim AS, et al. Best evidence interventions: findings from a systematic review of HIV behavioral interventions for US populations at high risk, 2000–2004. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):133–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Minnesota Department of Health (1987. 2005 Report on Minnesota adolescents: STD, HIV, and pregnancy. Minneapolis: Minnesota Department of Health; 2005.Google Scholar
  30. Mustanski B. Ethical and regulatory issues with conducting sexuality research with LGBT adolescents: a call to action for a scientifically informed approach. Arch Sex Behav. 2011;40(1):189–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mustanski B, Garofalo R, Herrick A, Donenberg G. Psychosocial health problems increase risk for HIV among urban young men who have sex with men: preliminary evidence of a syndemic in need of attention. Ann Behav Med. 2007;34(1):37–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mustanski B, Stauffer A, Garofalo R. At the intersection of HIV/AIDS disparities: young African American men who have sex with men. In: Johnson W, editor. The social work and social justice response to the African American male. Oxford, UK: Oxford Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  33. Mustanski BS, Garofalo R, Emerson EM. Mental health disorders, psychological distress, and suicidality in a diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(12):2426–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mustanski B, Newcomb M, Garofalo R. Mental health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: a developmental resiliency perspective. J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv. 2011;23(2):204–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O’Leary A, Fisher HH, Purcell DW, Spikes PS, Gomez CA. Correlates of risk patterns and race/ethnicity among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2007;11(5):706–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perrino T, Gonzalez-Soldevilla A, Pantin H, Szapocznik J. The role of families in adolescent HIV prevention: a review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2000;3(2):81–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pew Hispanic Center, and Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Changing faiths: Latinos and the transformation of American religion. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center; 2007.Google Scholar
  38. Rangel MC, Gavin L, Reed C, Fowler MG, Lee LM. Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among adolescents and young adults in the United States. J Adolesc Health. 2006;39(2):156–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Remafedi G. Adolescent homosexuality: psychosocial and medical implications. Pediatrics. 1987;79(3):331–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Rosario M, Mahler K, Hunter J, Gwadz M. Understanding the unprotected sexual behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: an empirical test of the cognitive environmental model. Health Psychol. 1999;18(3):272–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosario M, Schrimshaw EW, Hunter J. Ethnic/racial differences in the coming out process of ­lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: a comparison of sexual identity development over time. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2004;10(3):215–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rosario M, Schrimshaw EW, Hunter J. A model of sexual risk behaviors among young gay and bisexual men: longitudinal associations of mental health, substance abuse, sexual abuse, and the coming-out process. Aids Educ Prev. 2006;18(5):444–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ryan C, Hunter J. Clinical issues with youth. In: A provider’s guide to substance abuse treatment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. Washington, DC: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment/SAMHSA (CSAT); 2001. p. 99–103.Google Scholar
  44. Ryan C, Huebner D, Diaz RM, Sanchez J. Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in white and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics. 2009;123(1):346–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Saewyc E. Pregnancy among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents: influences of stigma, sexual abuse and sexual orientation. In: Omoto AM, Kurtzman HS, editors. Sexual orientation and mental health: examining identity and development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual people, Contemporary perspectives on lesbian, gay, and bisexual psychology, xi. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2006 (p. 95–116). 323 pp. doi: 10.1037/11261-005.Google Scholar
  46. Saltzburg S. Learning that an adolescent child is gay or lesbian: the parent experience. Soc Work. 2004;49(1):109–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Santrock JW. Adolescence. 12th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2008. p. 287–9.Google Scholar
  48. Savin-Williams RC. Coming out to parents and self-esteem among gay and lesbian youths. J Homosex. 1989a;18(1–2):1–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Savin-Williams RC. Parental influences on the self-esteem of gay and lesbian youths: a reflected appraisals model. J Homosex. 1989b;17(1–2):93–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Savin-Williams RC. Mom, dad, I’m gay: how families negotiate coming out. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Savin-Williams RC. The new gay teenager. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  52. Savin-Williams RC, Ream GL. Prevalence and stability of sexual orientation components during adolescence and young adulthood. Arch Sex Behav. 2007;36(3):385–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sifakis F, Hylton JB, Flynn C, Solomon L, Mackellar DA, Valleroy LA, et al. Racial disparities in HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men: the Baltimore Young Men’s Survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;46(3):343–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tremble B, Schneider M, Appathurai C. Growing up gay or lesbian in a multicultural context. J Homosex. 1989;17(3–4):253–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Valleroy LA, MacKellar DA, Karon JM. HIV prevalence and associated risks in young men who have sex with men: Young Men’s Survey Study Group. JAMA. 2000;284:198–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Warren JC, Fernandez MI, Harper GW, Hidalgo MA, Jamil OB, Torres RS. Predictors of ­unprotected sex among young sexually active African American, Hispanic, and White MSM: the importance of ethnicity and culture. AIDS Behav. 2007;12(3):459–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

Personalised recommendations