Chapter

Fading and Shadowing in Wireless Systems

pp 193-312

Date:

Modeling of Fading and Shadowing

  • P. Mohana ShankarAffiliated withElectrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University Email author 

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Abstract

We presented various models to describe the statistical fluctuations in wireless channels. The models ranged from the simple Rayleigh ones, to cascaded ones, and to complex models such as those based on κμ and ημ distributions. The models were compared in terms of their density functions, distribution functions, and quantitative measures such as error rates and outage probabilities. The shadowing was examined using the traditional lognormal model and approaches based on similarities between lognormal pdf and other density functions. We looked at the simultaneous existence of short-term fading and shadowing using the Nakagami-lognormal density function and approximations to it using the GK model and the Nakagami-N-gamma model. To complete the study of these models for fading, shadowing, and shadowed fading channels, we examined some second-order statistical properties for several models.