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Epilepsy pp 107-118 | Cite as

Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy in Humans

  • David W. McCandless
Chapter

Abstract

Tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal seizures) are those affecting the entire brain. The convulsions involve the entire body and consist of muscle rigidity, violent muscle contractions, and a loss of consciousness. When the seizure activity stops, ­unconsciousness usually continues for many minutes, then occurs a period of confusion, amnesia, and drowsiness. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures can be roughly classified into two varieties. The first is secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, which arise as an aura (simple partial seizure), then become partial complex seizures with a distinct focus. Secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures then spread bilaterally throughout the brain. The second type (primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures) is bilaterally generalized initially without an initiating focus.

Keywords

Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Vagus Nerve Stimulation Partial Seizure Seizure Frequency Single Photon Emission Compute Tomography Image 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David W. McCandless
    • 1
  1. 1.The Chicago Medical School Department of Cell Biology and AnatomyRosalind Franklin UniversityChicagoUSA

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