• José M. Fernández-Martínez
  • Leonardo Velasco


Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is a very ancient oilseed crop cultivated because of the high oil content of the seeds, which ranges between 42 and 58%. The oil contains a high proportion (84–90%) of ricinoleic acid, a monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acid with multiple industrial applications such as paints and varnishes, cosmetics, polymers, biolubricants and biofuels. This chapter summarizes breeding objectives and crop improvement methods and techniques used to breed cultivars in castor. The most important breeding objectives are related to plant architecture and adaptation to mechanized harvest, development of male sterility systems for exploitation of heterosis, agronomic traits associated with high yield and yield stability, adaptation to specific environments, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, high seed oil content, diversification of seed oil quality and elimination of toxic compounds of the seeds. Despite being a highly cross-pollinated species, castor shows little inbreeding depression, which determines that breeding methods for self-pollinated crops together with common methods for cross-pollinated species such as recurrent selection are suitable for castor breeding. Additionally, hybrid breeding as a means of exploitation of heterosis has been an important aspect of cultivar development. Major landmarks in castor breeding have been the identification of dwarf-internode mutants, male sterility systems that facilitated the development of commercial hybrids, the identification of strains with high oleic acid content and low content of toxic compounds, and the development of efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. In the near future, the increasing demand for the use of vegetable oils in non-food applications such as biofuels and biolubricants is expected to stimulate the development of castor as an industrial crop that do not compete in the food markets.


Castor (Ricinus communis L.) Breeding objectives Crop improvement Heterosis Agronomic traits Biotic and abiotic stresses Inbreeding depression 


  1. Aboelsoud NH (2010) Herbal medicine in ancient Egypt. J Med Plant Res 42:82–86Google Scholar
  2. Ahn YJ, Vang L, McKeon TA, Chen GQ (2007) High-frequency plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation in castor (Ricinus communis L.). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 43:9–15Google Scholar
  3. Alam I, Sharmin SA, Mondal SC, Alam MJ, Khalekuzzaman M, Anisuzzaman M, Alam MF (2010) In vitro micropropagation through cotyledonary node culture of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). Aust J Crop Sci 4:81–84Google Scholar
  4. Allan G, Williams A, Rabinowicz PD, Chan AP, Ravel J, Keim P (2008) Worldwide genotyping of castor bean germplasm (Ricinus communis L.) using AFLPs and SSRs. Genet Res Crop Evol 55:365–378Google Scholar
  5. Allard RW (1960) Principles of plant breeding. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Anjani K (2005) Purple-coloured castor (Ricinus communis L.). A rare multiple resistant morphotype. Curr Sci 88:215–216Google Scholar
  7. Anjani K (2010) Extra-early maturing germplasm for utilization in castor improvement. Ind Crop Prod 31:139–144Google Scholar
  8. Anjani K, Raoof MA, Ashota Vardhana Reddy P, Rao CH (2002) Sources of resistance to major castor (Ricinus communis L.) diseases. Plant Genet Res Newslett 137:46–48Google Scholar
  9. Anjani K, Pallavi M, Sudhakara Babu SN (2010) Biochemical basis of resistance to leafminer in castor (Ricinus communis L.). Ind Crop Prod 31:192–196Google Scholar
  10. Ankineedu G, Sharma KD, Kulkarni LG (1968) Effect of fast neutrons and gamma rays on castor. Ind J Genet Plant Breed 28:31–39Google Scholar
  11. Ashri A (1994) Oil crops: status and outlook. In: Mutation breeding of oilseed crops. Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna, pp 7–12Google Scholar
  12. Athma P, Reddy TP (1983) Efficiency of callus initiation and direct regeneration from different explants of castor (Ricinus communis L.). Curr Sci 52:256–257Google Scholar
  13. Atsmon D (1989) Castor. In: Downey RK, Röbbelen G, Ashri A (eds) Oil crops of the world. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp 438–447Google Scholar
  14. Auld DL, Pinkerton SD, Boroda E, Lombard KA, Murphy CK, Kenworthy KE, Becker WD, Rolfe RD, Ghethie V (2003) Registration of TTU-LRC castor germplasm with reduced levels of ricin and RCA120. Crop Sci 43:746–747Google Scholar
  15. Auld DI, Zanotto MD, McKeon T, Morris JB (2009) Castor. In: Vollmann J, Rajcan I (eds) Oil crop breeding. Springer, New York, NY, pp 317–332Google Scholar
  16. Babita M, Maheswari M, Rao LM, Shanker AK, Gangadhar Rao D (2010) Osmotic adjustment, drought tolerance and yield in castor (Ricinus communis L.). Environ Exp Bot 69:243–249Google Scholar
  17. Bajay MM, Pinheiro JB, Araújo-Batista CE, Medeiros-Nobrega MB, Zucchi MI (2009) Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for castor (Ricinus communis L.), an important oleaginous species for biodiesel production. Conserv Genet Res 1:237–239Google Scholar
  18. Baldanzi M, Pugliesi C (1998) Selection for non-branching in castor, Ricinus communis L. Plant Breed 117:392–397Google Scholar
  19. Balint GA (1974) Ricin: the toxic protein of castor oil seeds. Toxicology 2:77–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Banzatto NV, Rocha JLV, Canecchio Filho V (1963) Transferencia do caráter indeiscencia para o cultivar IAC-38 de mamoneira. Bragantia 22:291–298Google Scholar
  21. Banzatto NV, Canecchio Filho V, Savy Filho A (1977) Guarani. Novo cultivar de mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.). Boletim técnico n. 66. Campinas: Instituto AgronômicoGoogle Scholar
  22. Barteneva RV (1986) Pests. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 284–286Google Scholar
  23. Bhardwag HL, Mohamed AI, Webber CL, Lovell GR (1996) Evaluation of castor germplasm for agronomic and oil characteristics. In: Janick J (ed) Progress in new crops. ASHS, Alexandria, VA, pp 342–346Google Scholar
  24. Bilapate GG (1978) Life table for the castor capsule borer, Dichocrocis punctiferalis Gn. on different hosts. Proc Ind Acad Sci 87B:217–220Google Scholar
  25. Blagodyr AP (1986) Tasks of seed production work and requirements for seeds. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 185–190Google Scholar
  26. Bonjean A (1991) Castor cultivation for chemical applications. Galileo-ONIDOL, Les LilasGoogle Scholar
  27. Brigham RD (1965) Delayed germination and seedling emergence of castorbean (Ricinus communis L.) open-pollinated lines and hybrids as influenced by genotype and environment. Crop Sci 5:79–83Google Scholar
  28. Brigham RD (1967) Natural outcrossing in dwarf-internode castor Ricinus communis L. Crop Sci 7:353–355Google Scholar
  29. Brigham RD (1970a) Registration of castor variety Dawn. Crop Sci 10:457Google Scholar
  30. Brigham RD (1970b) Registration of castor variety Hale. Crop Sci 10:457Google Scholar
  31. Brigham RD (1970c) Registration of castor variety Lynn. Crop Sci 10:457Google Scholar
  32. Brigham RD (1973) Registration of T55001 castor composite germplasm. Crop Sci 13:398Google Scholar
  33. Brigham RD (1980) Castor. In: Fehr WR, Hadley HH (eds) Hybridization of crop plants. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp 235–247Google Scholar
  34. Brigham RD (1993) Castor: return of a crop. In: Janick J, Simon JE (eds) New crops. Wiley, New York, pp 380–383Google Scholar
  35. Brigham RD, Minton EB (1969) Resistance of dwarf-internode castor (Ricinus communis L.) to verticillium wilt. Plant Dis Rptr 53:262–266Google Scholar
  36. Bukhatchenko SL (1986) Ricinine: the alkaloid of castor oil. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 81–85Google Scholar
  37. Calvert OH, Thomas CA, Van Horn DL (1953) A bacterial leaf spot disease of castor new for the United States. Plant Dis Rptr 37:447Google Scholar
  38. Carvalho do Amaral JG (2003) Seleção de plantas individual com testes de progênies em mamona (Ricinus commnis L.) cv. Guarani. PhD Dissertation, College of Agronomy Sciences, São Paulo State University, BotucatuGoogle Scholar
  39. Chakrabarty SK (1997) Combining ability and heterosis studies in castor (Ricinus communis L.). J Oilseeds Res 14:182–188Google Scholar
  40. Chan AP, Redman J, Allan G, Keim P, Fraser C, Ravel J, Rabinowicz PD (2006) Whole genome analysis of castor bean (Ricinus communis). Abstracts: plant and animal genomes XIV Conference, pp 14. Accessed 1 July 2010
  41. Chattopadhyay C, Reddy MCM (1995) Wilt complex of castor (Ricinus communis): Role of reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira) nematode. J Oilseeds Res 12:203–207Google Scholar
  42. Chauhan SVS, Singh KP, Saxena BK (1992) Gamma-ray induced female mutation in castor. Ind J Genet Breed 52:26–28Google Scholar
  43. Chen GQ, He X, Liao LP, McKeon TA (2004) 2 S albumin gene expression in castor plant (Ricinus communis L.). J Am Oil Chem Soc 81:867–872Google Scholar
  44. Chen GQ, Ahn YJ, Vang L (2007) Engineering new crops for safe castor oil production. In: Xu Z, Li J, Xue Y, Yang W (eds) Biotechnology and sustainable agriculture. 2006 and beyond. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 227–230Google Scholar
  45. Claassen CE, Hoffman A (1950) The inheritance of the pistillate character in castors and its possible utilization in the production of commercial hybrid seed. Agron J 42:79–82Google Scholar
  46. Conceiçaõ MM, Candeia RA, Silva FC, Bezerra AF, Fernandes VJ, Souza AG (2007) Thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil biodiesel. Renew Sust Energy Rev 11:964–975Google Scholar
  47. Culp TW (1966) Inheritance of capsule drop resistance and pedicel length in castorbeans (Ricinus communis L.). Crop Sci 6:280–283Google Scholar
  48. Dange SRS (2003) Wilt of castor. An overview. J Mycol Plant Pathol 33:333–339Google Scholar
  49. Dange SRS, Desai AG, Patel SI (2005) Diseases of castor. In: Saharan GS, Mehta N, Sangwan MS (eds) Diseases of oilseed crops. Indus, New Delhi, pp 211–235Google Scholar
  50. Desai AG, Dange SRS, Pathak HC (2001) Genetics of resistance to wilt in castor caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ricini Nanda & Prasad. J Mycol Plant Pathol 31:322–326Google Scholar
  51. Doering-Saad C, Newbury HJ, Couldridge CE, Bale JS, Pritchard J (2006) A phloem-enriched cDNA library from Ricinus: insights into phloem function. J Exp Bot 57:3183–3193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Domingo WE (1944) Amount of natural out-crossing in the castor oil plant. J Am Soc Agron 36:360–361Google Scholar
  53. Donini B, Kawai T, Micke A (1984) Spectrum of mutant characters utilized in developing improved cultivars. In: Selection in mutation breeding: Proceedings of a consultants meeting, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna, pp 7–31Google Scholar
  54. Downey RK, Harvey BL (1963) Methods of breeding for oil quality in rape. Can J Plant Sci 43:271–275Google Scholar
  55. D’Souza SF, Reddy KS, Badigannavar AM, Manjaya JG, Jambhulkar SJ (2009) Mutation breeding in oilseeds and grain legumes in India: accomplishments and socio-economic impact. In: Shu QY (ed) Induced plant mutations in the genomic era. Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna, pp 55–57Google Scholar
  56. EMBRAPA (2004) BRS Paraguaçu e BRS Nordestina. Tecnologia Embrapa para o semi-árido Brasileiro. Embrapa, Campina Grande, Brazil. Accessed 1 July 2010
  57. FAOSTAT (2009) Data base of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Accessed 1 July 2010
  58. Foster JT, Allan GJ, Chan AP, Rabinowicz PD, Ravel J, Jackson PJ, Keim P (2010) Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis). BMC Plant Biol 10:3Google Scholar
  59. Gajera BB, Kumar N, Singh AS, Punvar BS, Ravikiran R, Subhash N, Jadeja GC (2010) Assessment of genetic diversity in castor (Ricinus communis L.) using RAPD and ISSR markers. Ind Crop Prod 32(3):491–498. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.06.021 Google Scholar
  60. Ganesh Kumari K, Ganesan M, Jayabalan N (2008) Somatic organogenesis and plant regeneration in Ricinus communis. Biol Plant 52:17–25Google Scholar
  61. George WLJ, Shifriss O (1967) Interspersed sexuality in Ricinus. Genetics 57:347–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Giriraj K, Mensinkai SW, Sindagi SS (1974) Components of genetic variation for yield and its attributes in 6x6 diallel crosses of castor (Ricinus communis L.). Ind J Agric Sci 44:132–136Google Scholar
  63. Golakia PR, Monpara BA, Posshiya VK (2008) Heterosis for yield determinants over environments in castor (Ricinus communis L.). J Oilseeds Res 25:25–28Google Scholar
  64. Gomes de Albuquerque W, Soares-Severino L, Macêdo-Beltrão NE, Oliveira-Freire MA, Milani M (2008) Variação no percentual de tegumento em relação ao peso da semente de dez genótipos de mamoneira. III Congresso Brasileiro de Mamona. Accessed 1 July 2010
  65. Grezes-Besset B, Lucante N, Kelechian V, Dargent R, Muller H (1996) Evaluation of castor bean resistance to sclerotial wilt disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina. Plant Dis 80:842–846Google Scholar
  66. Harley SM, Beevers H (1982) Ricin inhibition of in vivo protein synthesis by plant ribosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79:5935–5938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Holfelder MGAH, Steck M, Komor E, Seifert KH (1998) Ricinine in phloem sap of Ricinus communis. Phytochemistry 47:1461–1464Google Scholar
  68. Hooks JA, Williams JH, Gardner CO (1971) Estimates of heterosis from a diallel cross in castors, Ricinus communis L. Crop Sci 11:651–655Google Scholar
  69. Jayaraj S (1967) Studies on the resistance of castor plants (Ricinus communis L.) to the leafhopper, Empoasca flavescens (F.) (Homoptera, Jassidae). Z Angew Entomol 59:117–126Google Scholar
  70. Khvostova IV (1986) Ricin: the toxic protein of seeds. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 85–92Google Scholar
  71. Knothe G (2008) “Designer” biodiesel: Optimizing fatty acid ester composition to improve fuel properties. Energy Fuel 22:1358–1364Google Scholar
  72. Koutroubas SD, Papakosta DK, Doitsinis A (2000) Water requirements for castor oil crop (Ricinus communis L.) in a Mediterranean climate. J Agron Crop Sci 184:33–41Google Scholar
  73. Krug CA, Teixeira Mendes P, Ferreira de Sousa O (1943) Melhoramento da mamoneira (R. communis L.). III: Primeira série de ensaios de variedades (1937/38, 1938/39). Bragantia 3:85–122Google Scholar
  74. Kulkarni LG, Ankineedu G (1966) Isolation of pistillate lines in castor for exploitation of hybrid vigour. Ind J Genet Plant Breed 26:363–365Google Scholar
  75. Laureti D (1987) Valutazione dell’attitudine generale alla combinazione in Ricinus communis L. Rivista di Agronomia 21:50–53Google Scholar
  76. Laureti D, Brighan RD (1987) Genetica e miglioramento del ricino. Agricoltura Ricerca 89:11–22Google Scholar
  77. Laureti D, Fedeli AM, Scarpa GM, Marra GF (1998) Performance of castor (Ricinus communis L.) cultivars in Italy. Ind Crop Prod 7:91–93Google Scholar
  78. Lavanya C, Chakrabarthy SK, Ramachandram M, Rao CH, Raoof MA (2003) Development of wilt resistant pistillate lines in castor through mutation breeding. J Oilseed Res 20:48–50Google Scholar
  79. Lavanya C, Rao PVR, Gopinath VV (2006) Studies on combining ability and heterosis of yield and yield components in castor Ricinus communis L. hybrids. J Oilseeds Res 23:174–177Google Scholar
  80. Lowery C, Auld D, Rolfe R, McKeon T, Goodrum J (2007) Barriers to commercialization of a castor cultivar with reduced concentration of ricin. In: Janick J, Whipkey A (eds) Issues in new crops and new uses. ASHS, Alexandria, VA, pp 97–104Google Scholar
  81. Lu C, Wallis JG, Browse J (2007) An analysis of expressed sequence tags of developing castor endosperm using a full-length cDNA library. BMC Plant Biol 7:42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Malathi B, Ramesh S, Venkateswara Rao K, Dashavantha Reddi V (2006) Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and production of semilooper resistant transgenic castor (Ricinus communis L.). Euphytica 147:441–449Google Scholar
  83. Manniche L (1989) An ancient Egyptian herbal. The University of Texas Press, Austin, TXGoogle Scholar
  84. McKeon TA, Chen GQ, Lin JT (2000) Biochemical aspects of castor oil biosynthesis. Biochem Soc Trans 28:972–974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Moses GJ, Reddy RR (1989) Gray rot of castor in Andhra Pradesh. J Res APAU 17:74–75Google Scholar
  86. Moshkin VA (1986a) History and Origin of castor. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 6–10Google Scholar
  87. Moshkin VA (1986b) Direction of breeding and criteria of selection. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 117–125Google Scholar
  88. Moshkin VA (1986c) Development of initial material. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 132–146Google Scholar
  89. Moshkin VA (1986d) Methods and achievements in the breeding of varieties. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 125–132Google Scholar
  90. Moshkin VA, Dvoryadkina AG (1986) Cytology and genetics of qualitative characteristics. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 93–103Google Scholar
  91. Myczkowski ML, Zanotto MD, Carvalho do Amaral JG, Manebe-Kiihl TA, Jesus CR (2006) Taxa de cruzamentos naturais na cultivar Guarani Comun de mamona (Ricinus communis L.). II Congresso Brasileiro de Mamona. Accessed 1 July 2010
  92. Okoh JO, Ojo AA, Vange T (2007) Combining ability and heterosis of oil content in six accessions of castor at Makurdi. Nat Sci 5:18–23Google Scholar
  93. Oliveira IJ, Zanotto MD (2008) Eficiência da seleção recorrente para redução da estatura de plantas em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.). Ciênc Agrotec 32:1107–1112Google Scholar
  94. Peat JE (1928) Genetic studies in Ricinus communis L. J Genet 19:373–389Google Scholar
  95. Pinkerton SD, Rolfe R, Auld DL, Ghetie V, Lauterbach F (1999) Selection for divergent concentrations of ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin. Crop Sci 39:353–357Google Scholar
  96. Popova GM, Moshkin VA (1986) Botanical classification. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 11–27Google Scholar
  97. Prasad N, Bhatnagar A (1981) Evaluation of resistant varieties of castor to wilt pathogen. J Mycol Plant Pathol 11:137–138Google Scholar
  98. Raghavaiah CV, Lavanya C, Kumaran S, Royal TJJ (2006) Screening castor (Ricinus communis) genotypes for salinity tolerance in terms of germination, growth and plant ion composition. Indian J Agric Sci 76:196–199Google Scholar
  99. Rojas-Barros P (2001) Estudios genéticos de androesterilidad, contenido en aceite y ácido ricinoleico en ricino (Ricinus communis L.). PhD Thesis, University of Córdoba, SpainGoogle Scholar
  100. Rojas-Barros P, De Haro A, Fernández-Martínez JM (2004) Isolation of a natural mutant in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) with high oleic/low ricinoleic acid content. Crop Sci 44:76–80Google Scholar
  101. Rojas-Barros P, De Haro A, Fernández-Martínez JM (2005) Inheritance of high oleic/low ricinoleic acid content in the seed oil of castor mutant OLE-1. Crop Sci 45:157–162Google Scholar
  102. Sarwar G, Chaudhry MB (2008) Evaluation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) induced mutants for possible selection in the improvement of seed yield. Spanish J Agric Res 6:629–634Google Scholar
  103. Sathaiah V, Reddy TP (1985) Seed protein profiles of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and some Jatropha species. Genet Agr 39:35–43Google Scholar
  104. Sathaiah V, Reddy TP (1986) Peroxidase isozyme patterns of parents and hybrids in a 9x9 diallel of castor (Ricinus communis L.). In: Manna GK, Sinha U (eds) Perspectives in cytology and genetics, vol 5. Rashtravani, Mayapuri, pp 713–721Google Scholar
  105. Savy Filho A (2005) Melhoramento de mamona. In: Borém A (ed) Melhoramento de Espécies Cultivadas. Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil, pp 385–407Google Scholar
  106. Savy Filho A (2007a) Mamona (Ricinus communis). Desenvolvimento de tecnologia de produção. São Paulo, Brazil: Péter Murányi Foundation. Accessed 1 July 2010
  107. Savy Filho A, Amorim EP, Ramos NP, Mello-Martins AL, Cavichioli JC (2007) IAC-2028: Nova cultivar de mamona. Pesq Agrop Bras 42:449–452Google Scholar
  108. Savy Filho A, Banzatto NV, Ferraz de Arruza Veiga R, Percio Campana M, Pertinelli A (1984) IAC-80. Novo cultivar de mamoneira de porte alto. Boletim técnico n. 85, Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  109. Savy Filho A, Banzatto NV, de Arruza F, Veiga R, Percio Campana M, Pertinelli A (1990) New castor bean cultivar IAC-226. Bragantia 49:269–280Google Scholar
  110. Scarpa A, Guerci A (1982) Various uses of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.). A review. J Ethnopharmacol 5:117–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Scholz V, Nogueira da Silva J (2008) Prospects and risks of the use of castor oil as a fuel. Biomass Bioenergy 32:95–100Google Scholar
  112. Schultze-Motel J, Fritsch R, Hammer K, Hanelt P, Kruse J, Maass HI, Ohle H, Pistrick K (1982) Taxonomy and evolution of cultivated plants: Literature review 1980/1981. Genet Res Crop Evol 30:273–291Google Scholar
  113. Shifriss O (1956) Sex instability in Ricinus. Genetics 41:265–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Shifriss O (1960) Conventional and unconventional systems controlling sex variations in Ricinus. J Genet 57:361–388Google Scholar
  115. Singh J, Barnejee AK, Swarup J (1976) Efficacy of fungicides in controlling bacterial leaf spot of castor and varieties resistant to it. Indian J Farm Sci 4:125–127Google Scholar
  116. Smith JD (1963) Inheritance of capsule spines on castorbeans (Ricinus communis L.). Crop Sci 3:278–279Google Scholar
  117. Solanki SS, Joshi P (2000) Combining ability analysis over environments of diverse pistillate and male parents for seed yield and other traits in castor (Ricinus communis L.). Ind J Genet 60:201–212Google Scholar
  118. Stafford RE (1973) Registration of CMR-1 castor germplasm. Crop Sci 13:131Google Scholar
  119. Stein H (1965) A gene for unfruitfulness in the castor bean plant and its utilization in hybrid seed production. Crop Sci 5:90–93Google Scholar
  120. Stone WJ, Culp TW (1959) Effects of diseases on castorbeans in Mississipi. Plant Dis Rptr 43:827–829Google Scholar
  121. Sujatha M (2008) Genetic improvement of castor (Ricinus communis L.) through tissue culture and biotechnological tools. In: Kumar A, Sopory SK (eds) Recent Advances in Plant Biotechnology and its Applications. I.K. International, New Delhi, pp 278–287Google Scholar
  122. Sujatha M, Reddy TP (1998) Differential cytokinin effects on the stimulation of in vitro shoot proliferation from meristematic explants of castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plant Cell Rep 17:561–566Google Scholar
  123. Sujatha M, Sailaja M (2005) Stable genetic transformation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer using embryo axes from mature seeds. Plant Cell Rep 23:803–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sujatha M, Reddy TP, Mahasi MJ (2008) Role of biotechnological interventions in the improvement of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and Jatropha curcas L. Biotechnol Adv 26:424–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sujatha M, Lakshminarayana M, Tarakeswari M, Singh PK, Tuli R (2009) Expression of the cry1EC gene in castor (Ricinus communis L.) confers field resistance to tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura Fabr) and castor semilooper (Achoea janata L.). Plant Cell Rep 28:935–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sviridov AA (1984) Improving inbred lines of castor for Fusarium resistance. Trop Oilseed Abstr 9:9Google Scholar
  127. Sviridov AA (1986) Breeding for resistance to Fusarium. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 157–64Google Scholar
  128. Swaminathan MS (1983) Science and the conquest of hunger. Naurang Rai, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  129. Teixeira Mendes P, Ferreira de Sousa O (1945) Melhoramento da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L.). IV. Segunda e terceira séries de ensaios de variedades. Bragantia 5:351–358Google Scholar
  130. Tepora NM (1994) Improvement of castor plant productivity through induced mutations. In: Breeding M (ed) of Oilseed Crops. Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna, pp 149–157Google Scholar
  131. Thomas CA (1960) Relations of variety, temperature and seed immaturity to pre-emergence damping-off of castorbean. Phytopathology 51:473–474Google Scholar
  132. Thomas CA, Orellana RG (1963) Nature of predisposition of castor beans to Botrytis. II. Raceme compactness, internode length, position of staminate flowers, and bloom in relation to capsule susceptibility. Phytopathology 53:249–251Google Scholar
  133. Van De Loo FJ, Turner S, Somerville C (1995) Expressed sequence tags from developing castor seeds. Plant Physiol 108:1141–1150Google Scholar
  134. Vanozzi GP, Paolini R, Lauretti D, Alba E (1983) Obiettivi della ricerca per varietà ed ibridi di ricino adatti all’Italia. L’Informatore Agrario 39:26213–26216Google Scholar
  135. Vavilov NI (1951) The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. Selected writings translated from the Russian by K.S. Chester. Waltham, MA: Chronica BotanicaGoogle Scholar
  136. Velasco L, Fernández-Martínez JM (2002) Breeding oilseed crops for improved oil quality. In: Basra AS, Randhawa LS (eds) Quality Improvement in Field Crops. Food Products Press, Binghamton, NY, USA, pp 309–344Google Scholar
  137. Velasco L, Rojas-Barros P, Fernández-Martínez JM (2005) Fatty acid and tocopherol accumulation of a high-oleic acid castor mutant. Ind Crop Prod 22:201–206Google Scholar
  138. Voskoboinik LK (1986a) Heterosis and its use. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 146–156Google Scholar
  139. Voskoboinik LK (1986b) Hybrid seed production. In: Moshkin VA (ed) Castor. Amerind, New Delhi, pp 197–200Google Scholar
  140. Weber E (2003) Invasive plant species of the world. a reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  141. Weiss A (2000) Oilseed crops. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  142. White OE (1918) Breeding new castor beans. J Hered 9:195–200Google Scholar
  143. Zanotto MD, Carvalho do Amaral JG, Poletine JP (2004) Seleção recorrente com utilização de progénies autofecundadas para diminuição da altura de plantas de mamona (Ricinus communis L.) população Guarani Comun. I Congresso Brasileiro de Mamona. publicacoes/trabalhos_cbm1/. Accessed 1 July 2010
  144. Zhou G, Ma BL, Li J, Feng C, Lu J, Qin P (2010) Determining salinity threshold level for castor bean emergence and stand establishment. Crop Sci 50:2030–2036Google Scholar
  145. Zimmerman LH (1957) The relationship of a dwarf-internode gene to several important agronomic characters in castorbeans. Agron J 49:251–254Google Scholar
  146. Zimmerman LH (1958) Castorbeans, a new oil crop for mechanized production. Adv Agron 10:258–288Google Scholar
  147. Zimmerman LH, Parkey W (1954) Pistillate F1 castorbeans: their possible significance in producing commercial hybrid seed. Agron J 46:287Google Scholar
  148. Zimmerman LH, Smith JD (1966) Production of F1 seed in castorbeans by use of sex genes sensitive to environment. Crop Sci 6:406–409Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • José M. Fernández-Martínez
    • 1
  • Leonardo Velasco
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC)CórdobaSpain
  2. 2.Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC)CórdobaSpain

Personalised recommendations