Caregiving in Rural America: A Matter of Culture
Family caregiving is a universal experience, an act of love and filial responsibility, but also an essential part of the health and long-term care systems. In 2004, an estimated 44.4 million Americans over the age of 18 years (21% of the U.S. adult population) provided unpaid care for another adult in an estimated 22.9 million households (National Alliance for Caregiving and AARP, 2004). Family or other informal caregiving, although unpaid, has been estimated to have a value to American society of $257 billion annually (Arno, 2002), at a substantial cost to the individuals providing the care.
KeywordsFamily Caregiver Rural Resident Care Recipient Rural Life National Alliance
- Administration on Aging. (2006). Resources: Common caregiving terms. Retrieved April 1, 2008, from http://www.aoa.gov/prof/aoaprog/caregiver/careprof/progguidance/resources/caregiving_terms.asp.
- Alliance for Health Reform. (2004). Closing the gap: Racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Journal of the National Medical Association, 96(4), 436–440.Google Scholar
- Arno, P. S. (2002, February). Economic value of informal caregiving. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Geriatric Psychiatry, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
- Buckwalter, K. C., Russell, C., & Hall, G. (1994). Needs, resources, and responses of rural caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease. In E. Light, G. Niederehe, & B. D. Lebowitz (Eds.), Stress effects on family caregivers of Alzheimer’s patients: Research and interventions (pp. 301–315). New York: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Chwalisz, K., & Hanson, T. J. (2001, March). Family caregivers: A population in need of counseling psychology’s attention. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the National Counseling Psychology conference, Houston, TX.Google Scholar
- Coward, R. T., Netzer, J. K., & Mullins, R. A. (1996). Residential differences in the incidence of nursing home admissions across a six-year period. Journal of Gerontology, 51(5), S258–S267.Google Scholar
- Family Caregiving and Public Policy: Principles for Change. (2003, December). Retrieved on April 3, 2008, from http://www.caregiving.org/data/principles04.pdf.
- Fitchen, J. M. (1991). Endangered spaces, enduring places: Change, identity, and survival in rural America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Hargrove, D. S. (2000). Rural communities. Encyclopedia of Psychology, 7, 123–127.Google Scholar
- Health Plan of New York & National Alliance for Caregiving. (2005). Care for the family caregiver: A place to start. Retrieved April 3, 2008, from http://www.caregiving.org/pubs/brochures/CFC.pdf.
- Henderson, J., & Weiler, S. (2004, July). Defining “rural” America. Main Street Economist. Retrieved April 3, 2008, from http://www.kansascityfed.org/RegionalAffairs/mainstreet/MSE_0704.pdf.
- Horowitz, A. (1985). Family caregiving to the frail elderly. In C. Eisdorfer (Ed.), Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics (Vol. 5, pp. 194–246). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Institute of Medicine. (2005). Quality through collaboration: The future of rural health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Krout, J. (1994). An overview of older rural populations and community-based services. In J. Krout (Ed.), Providing community-based services to the rural elderly (pp. 3–19). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Lemke, J. H., Saha, C., Yankey, J., & Baenziger, J. (2001). Assessment of the unmet needs of the frail elderly in case management: Phase I. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa, Center on Aging.Google Scholar
- Logan, J. (2000). Rural America as a symbol of American values. Rural Development Perspectives, 12(1), 19–21.Google Scholar
- Mantone, J. (2005). Rural route. Modern Healthcare, 35(20), 28–32.Google Scholar
- Martinez, R. J. (1999). Close friends of God: An ethnographic study of health of older Hispanic adults. The Journal of Multi-cultural Nursing and Health, 5(1), 40–45.Google Scholar
- Mausbach, B. T., Coon, D. W., Cardenas, V., & Thompson, L. W. (2003). Religious coping among Caucasian and Latina dementia caregivers. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 9(2), 97–110.Google Scholar
- McLeskey, J., Cummings, J., & Huebner, E. S. (1988). Characteristics of rural America and their interface with school psychology. In T. R. Kratochwill (Ed.), Advances in school psychology (Vol. 6, pp. 173–201). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- MetLife. (1999). The MetLife juggling act study: Balancing caregiving with work and the costs involved. Westport, CT: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.Google Scholar
- MetLife & National Alliance for Caregiving. (2006). 2006 MetLife Foundation family caregiver awards program. Retrieved April 4, 2008, from http://www.asaging.org/asav2/caregiver/index.cfm?CFID=12644792&CFTOKEN=19400852#definition.
- National Center for Health Statistics. (2001). Health, United States, 2001, with rural and urban chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
- National Center for Health Statistics. (2004). Health, United States, 2004, with chartbook on trends in the health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
- National Family Caregivers Association. (2002). What is family caregiving? Retrieved April 1, 2008, from http://www.thefamilycaregiver.org/what/what.cfm.
- National Rural Health Association. (2007). What’s different about rural health care? Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://www.nrharural.org/about/sub/different.html.
- Rogers, C. C. (1993). Health status and use of health care services by the older population (RDDR-86). Washington, DC: Food and Rural Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
- Schumacher, K. L., Stewart, B. J., Archbold, P. G., Dodd, M. J., & Dibble, S. L. (2000). Family caregiving skill: Development of the concept.Research in Nursing and Health, 23, 191–203.Google Scholar
- Smith, M., Buckwalter, K. C., & DeCroix-Bane, S. (1997). Rural settings. In N. K. Worley (Ed.), Mental health nursing in the community (pp. 276–289). St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). United States: Urban/rural and inside/outside metropolitan area: GCT-P1. Urban/rural and metropolitan/nonmetropolitan population: 2000. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-_box_head_nbr=GCT-P1&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-format=US-1.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. (2003, September). Defining rural areas based on new county classifications. Amber Waves. Retrieved April 2, 2007, from http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/September03/Indicators/behinddata.htm.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service. (2005). Rural America at a glance, 2005. Economic information bulletin, 4. Retrieved April 6, 2007, from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Emphases/Rural/ataglance.htm.
- Van Hook, R. (1987). Rural health crisis for the elderly. Rural Health Care, 9(2), 13.Google Scholar
- Whitener, L. A., & McGranahan, D. A. (2003, February). Rural America: Opportunities and challenges. Amber Waves. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/Feb03/features/ruralamerica.htm
- Williams, M., Ebrite, F., & Redford, L. (1991). In-home services for elders in rural America. Kansas City, MO: National Resource Center for Rural Elderly.Google Scholar