The use of ancillary investigations in cytopathology improves diagnostic accuracy, helps subtype microorganisms, and determines their antimicrobial sensitivity. Newer detection methods are being increasingly introduced into routine clinical practice such as in situ hybridization (ISH) and molecular tests. This chapter covers the gamut of ancillary tests available for use with cytology specimens applicable to infectious diseases. Various stains including routine, special, and fluorescent stains are discussed, as well as cell block technique, immunocytochemistry, and ISH. More advanced methods like flow cytometry, signal amplification assays, and PCR are explained, as well as the role of traditional microbiology studies like serology and culture.
Hepatitis Lymphoma Iodine Tuberculosis Bacillus
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access
Thanks to Carina Aitken, Head of the Special Stains Section, Department of Anatomical Pathology, School of Pathology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, SA, for invaluable advice on special staining procedures and pitfalls.
Armbruster C, Pokieser L, Hassl A. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by bronchoalveolar lavage in AIDS patients. Comparison of Diff-Quik, fungifluor stain, direct immunofluorescence test and polymerase chain reaction. Acta Cytol. 1995;39:1089–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Lott RL. Fungi. In: Brown RW, editor. Histologic preparations: common problems and their solutions. Chicago: CAP Press; 2009. p. 85–94.Google Scholar
Nuovo GJ. The surgical and cytopathology of viral infections: utility of immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and in situ polymerase chain reaction amplification. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2006;10:117–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oliveira A, French C. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in cytopathology. A review. Acta Cytol. 2005;49:587–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woods GL, Walker DH. Detection of infection or infectious agents by use of cytologic and histologic stains. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1996;9:382–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar