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Reviews a wealth of literature on intergroup processes, mainly contextualizing and applying phenomena that have been researched for some decades. Topics covered include, among others: cognitive approaches to the consequences of being or perceiving oneself to be a member of a group, including ingroup favoritism and bias, linguistic bias, developmental studies, intergroup differentiation, and optimal distinctiveness theory; social categorization and social identity, looking at self group relationships, including individual differences, social identity, self esteem, and multiple category and multiple group membership. Similarly, the affective consequences of perceived or actual group membership are explored, including emotion, perceived threat, intergroup anxiety, and fear. The behavioral consequences of cognitive and affective aspects of intergroup processes are considered, including competition, conflict, and aggression; the contact hypothesis and improving intergroup relations, addressing such matters as dual identity, cross-categorization, overarching categories, reformulated ingroups, category salience, types of contact and the question of what contact actually changes, outgroup typicality and perceived homogeneity, whether consequences of contact are generalized, affective ties, and the reduction of intergroup anxiety. The chapter concludes with some more general thoughts about intergroup conflict and its resolution.