Nonhuman Primate Gamma-herpesviruses and Their Role in Cancer
This chapter describes the nonhuman primate gamma-herpesviruses that have been isolated and found to induce oncogenesis in animals after experimental inoculation. These simian herpesviruses and animal models are important not only to understanding of the viral factors necessary for oncogenesis but also to the identification of host factors required for the viruses to induce disease. Three simian gamma-herpesviruses have been shown to be associated with oncogenesis, and a fourth is being further characterized. The first is Herpesvirus saimiri, the prototypic gamma-herpesvirus, which was found to induce lymphomas in New-World monkeys in 1970. The second is rhesus lymphocryptovirus, the rhesus macaque homologue of Epstein–Barr virus, which was also found to be associated with lymphoma in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected animals. The third is rhesus macaque rhadinovirus, a close relative to human Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, which has also been found to induce tumors, lymphoma, and mesenchymal cell proliferative lesion in SIV-infected animals. Each virus is described in detail, and strengths for tumor models are discussed.
KeywordsRhesus Macaque Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Primary Effusion Lymphoma Herpesvirus Saimiri Viral Oncogenesis
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