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Human and Animal Retroviruses: HIV-1 Infection Is a Risk Factor for Malignancy

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Part of the Current Cancer Research book series (CUCR)

Abstract

Three malignancies are prognostic indicators of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome due to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection: Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and invasive cervical carcinoma. Each is associated with a slowly transforming oncogenic viral coinfection: human herpesvirus 8, Epstein–Barr virus, and human papillomaviruses, respectively. Five other malignancies occur at increased frequencies among those infected with HIV-1. Anti-HIV-1 treatment in synch with management of chemotherapeutic regiment significantly improves clinical outcomes in cancer patients infected with HIV-1. HIV-1 immunodepletion, cytokine stimulation, and paracrine activity of Tat are the key pathophysiological drivers of HIV-1-associated cancer. These activities stand in contrast to the activation of cellular proto-oncogenes by avian and murine retroviruses, and cell transformation by the viral oncoprotein of human leukemia virus type 1. Remarkably, HIV-1 does neither. Instead, HIV-1 stands as a natural model system to view the fundamental connection between the human immune response and neoplastic progression that are manifest of coinfection or lifestyle behaviors. The connections are wired between and among cell lineages by cytokine signaling, paracrine interactions, and secondary effects of immune disbalance. The next frontiers of exploration are to understand the interrelationship between the innate response to HIV-1 and other chronic virus infections and to define the microRNA signatures that modulate these biological processes. The outcomes are likely to converge and build new bridges from the bench to the bedside.

Keywords

  • Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma
  • Standardize Incidence Ratio
  • Primary Effusion Lymphoma
  • Invasive Cervical Carcinoma
  • Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0016-5_24
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Fig. 24.1
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Fig. 24.3

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Acknowledgments

We appreciate the assistance of Mr. Tim Vojt on the illustrations, Dr. Kate Hayes-Ozello for comments on the document, and the support of the National Institutes of Health for National Cancer Institute RO1CA108882 and P30CA100730 to KBL; P01CA16058 to the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center.

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Hayes, A.M., Boris-Lawrie, K. (2012). Human and Animal Retroviruses: HIV-1 Infection Is a Risk Factor for Malignancy. In: Robertson, E. (eds) Cancer Associated Viruses. Current Cancer Research. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-0016-5_24

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