Analysis of Solid Surfaces by Soft X-Ray Appearance Potential Spectroscopy
The total soft x-ray emission of an electron-bombarded surface exhibits abrupt changes at the threshold potentials for the excitation of core levels of surface atoms. These features represent the excitation probabilities of the core states superimposed on a smoothly increasing background and can be sensitively detected by differentiating the x-ray emission with respect to sample potential. The application of this technique to the study of surface composition, chemical shifts, and band structure is discussed.
KeywordsCore Level Stainless Steel Surface Excitation Probability Excitation Curve Core Level Binding Energy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.See for example: H. W. B. Skinner, “The Excitation Potentials of Light Elements. I. Lithium,” Proc. Roy. Soc. A135, 84 (1932).Google Scholar
- 3.R. L. Park and J. E. Houston, “Appearance Potential Spectroscopy on an Austere Budget,” Sur. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
- 5.B. Dev and H. Brinkman, “Lα Radiation from Cobalt, Nickel, and Copper Crystal Surfaces,” Nederlands Tijdscrift voor Vacuum-techniek 8, 176 (1970).Google Scholar
- 6.A. F. Burr, “The Application of X-Ray Data to the Determination of Atomic Energy Levels,” in B. L. Henke, J. B. Newkirk, and G. R. Mallett, Editors, Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 13, Plenum Press (1970).Google Scholar
- 7.J. E. Houston and R. L. Park, “The Effect of Oxygen on the Soft X-Ray Appearance Potential Spectrum of Chromium, ” J. Chem. Phys. (in press).Google Scholar