Analysis of Solid Surfaces by Soft X-Ray Appearance Potential Spectroscopy

  • Robert L. Park
  • J. E. Houston


The total soft x-ray emission of an electron-bombarded surface exhibits abrupt changes at the threshold potentials for the excitation of core levels of surface atoms. These features represent the excitation probabilities of the core states superimposed on a smoothly increasing background and can be sensitively detected by differentiating the x-ray emission with respect to sample potential. The application of this technique to the study of surface composition, chemical shifts, and band structure is discussed.


Core Level Stainless Steel Surface Excitation Probability Excitation Curve Core Level Binding Energy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Park
    • 1
  • J. E. Houston
    • 1
  1. 1.Sandia LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA

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