Thermodynamic Optimization of Helium Liquefaction Cycles

  • R. H. Hubbell
  • W. M. Toscano
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 35 A)


With the advent of superconducting technology, there has been a major emphasis in the design of helium refrigeration/liquefaction systems. In the past, refrigeration systems have been designed and built to provide cryogenic cooling to the superconducting windings. However, because of the large demand for refrigeration at cryogenic temperatures and the increase in energy costs, a renewed interest has developed in designing helium refrigeration/liquefaction systems which are much more energy efficient. Recent examples of superconducting applications have been mentioned in the literature [1].


Heat Exchanger Entropy Generation Heat Leak Thermodynamic Optimization Isentropic Efficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



= specific enthalpy

= mass flow rate


= nitrogen mass flow rate


= compressor mass flow rate


= turbine mass flow rate


= liquid helium flow rate


= pressure

\(\dot Q\)

= heat transfer rate

\(\dot Q_{\rm{hl}}\)

= heat leak


= gas constant


= entropy


= specific entropy


= temperature


= ambient temperature


= temperature at which entropy is generated


= specific volume


= actual work


= irreversible work


= reversible work


= entropy generation term


= temperature difference


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. H. Hubbell
    • 1
  • W. M. Toscano
    • 2
  1. 1.Arthur D. Little, Inc.CambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Foster-Miller AssociatesWalthamUSA

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