Thin Windows for Gaseous and Liquid Targets: An Optimization Procedure

  • W. H. Gray
  • W. V. Hassenzahl
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 22)


Many particle and nuclear physics experiments require cryogenic liquid, cryogenic high-pressure gas, or simply high-pressure gas targets with thin windows. Typically materials such as Havar,† Mylar,‡ Kapton,§ stainless steels, and various alloys of aluminum have been used. The most frequently used materials are Mylar and Kapton, which have relatively high tensile strengths and relatively low densities and atomic numbers. A comparison of the various materials on the basis of their performance as a target window, however, has not been available. In order that window design may be based on a complete understanding of the relationship between pressure and deflection an experimental program was carried out in two phases.


Displacement Transducer Window Material Failure Pressure Target Window Room Temperature Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W. V. Hassenzahl and W. H. Gray, LA-5833-MS Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (1975).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. E. Green and J. E. Adkms, Large Elastic Deformations 2nd ed. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1970).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. H. Gray, Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Doi, T. Morimoto, K. Takamatsu, and A. Sasaki, INS-Report-197 (1973).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. E. Bonyum, Trans. AIChE 31:256 (1935).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Jarmie, L. J. Morrison, and J. C. Martin, Nuc. Instrum. Methods 116:451 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. C. Nayak and O. C. Zienkiewicz, Intern. J. Num: Meth. Eng. 5:113 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. M. Ebner and J. J. Ucciferro, Computers and Structures 2:1043 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    S. S. Hecker, General Motors Corporation Research Publication, GMR-1487 Detroit, Michigan (1973).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. S. Hecker, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, private communication.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. P. Reed, R. E. Schramm, and A. F. Clark, Cryogenics 13:67 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. H. Gray
    • 1
  • W. V. Hassenzahl
    • 2
  1. 1.Oak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Los Alamos Scientific LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

Personalised recommendations