The perennial puzzle of a child who reads poorly despite normal intellect and absence of diseases beyond chicken pox and the common cold still defies solution. Dyslexic children have been described, diagnosed, characterized, labeled, classified, and reclassified by educators, pediatricians, neurologists, social scientists, psychologists, educational psychologists, social psychologists, school psychologists, testing psychologists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric psychologists, and finally, neuropsychologists. The unique ways in which these individuals perform are well-documented, yet the problem persists. The most serious consequence of this diversity is the multitude of treatments, remedial training, behavior modification, and medications that are developed to deal with these individuals. Successes have been claimed for all, yet newer techniques are continually being developed and marketed as the process is perpetuated. One gets the impression that virtually every method effects an improvement, yet none works well (or well enough). Thus, more research is deemed necessary, producing even more techniques in a seemingly unending and costly spiral.


Left Hemisphere Digit Span Reading Disability Disable Child Learn Disability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amt, S. & Berger, D.E. Cognitive mode and asymmetry in cerebral functioning. Cortex, 1978, 14, 78–86.Google Scholar
  2. Badian, N.A. & Serwer, B.L. The identification of high risk children: A retrospective look at selection criteria. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1975, 8, 283–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakker, D.J. Temporal order, meaningfulness, and reading ability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1967, 24, 1027–1030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakwin, H. Reading disability in twins. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1973, 15, 184–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentin, S. & Gordon, H.W. Assessment of cognitive asymmetries in brain-damaged and normal subjects: Validation of a test battery. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 1979, 42, 715–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benton, A. Developmental dyslexia. Advances in Neurology V.7, 1975, 1–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Benton, A.L., Levin, H.S., & Varney, N.R. Tactile perception of direction in normal subjects. Neurology, 1973, 23, 1248–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Benton, A., Hannay, H.J., & Varney, N.R. Visual perception of line direction in patients with unilateral brain disease. Neurology, 1975, 25, 907–910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bock, R.D. & Kolakowski, D. Further evidence of sex-linked major-gene influence on human spatial visualizing ability. American Journal of Human Genetics, 1973, 25, 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boder, C. Developmental dyslexia: A diagnostic approach based on three atypical reading-spelling patterns. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1973, 15, 663–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bogen, J.E. & Gazzaniga, M.S. Cerebral commissurotomy in man: Minor hemisphere dominance for certain visuospatial functions. Journal of Neurosurgery, 1965, 23(4), 394–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bogen, J.E., De Zure, R., Ten Houten, R.D., & Marsh, J.F. The other side of the brain IV: The A/P ratio. Bulletin of the Los Angeles Neurological Societies, 1972, 37, 49–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bryden, M.P. Response bias and hemispheric differences in dot localization. Perception and Psychophysics, 1976, 19, 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butters, N. & Barton, M. Effect of parietal lobe damage on the performance of reversible operations in space. Neuropsychologia, 1970, 8, 205–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Camp, B.W., Van Doornick, W.J., Frankenburg, W.K., & Lampe, J.M. Preschool developmental testing in prediction of school problems. Clinical Pediatrics, 1977, 16, 257–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carmon, A. & Benton, A.L. Tactile perception of direction and number in patients with unilateral cerebral disease. Neurology, 1969, 19, 525–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carmon, A. & Nachshon, I. Effect of unilateral brain damage on perception of temporal order. Cortex, 1971, 7, 410–418.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen, G. Hemispheric differences in serial versus parallel processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 97, 349–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Combe, G. A system of phrenology. Edinburgh: MacLachlan, Stewart & Co., 1843.Google Scholar
  20. De Renzi, E. & Scotti, G. The influence of spatial disorders in impairing tactual discrimination of shapes. Cortex, 1969, 5, 53–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., & Scotti, G. Tactile spatial impairment and unilateral cerebral damage. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1968, 146, 468–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., & Scotti, G. Judgment of spatial orientation in patients with focal brain damage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 1971, 34, 489–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Renzi, E., Faglioni, P., & Villa, P. Sequential memory for figures in brain-damaged patients. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 15, 43–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doehring, D.G. & Hoshko, I.M. Classification of reading problems by the Q-technique of factor analysis. Cortex, 1977, 13, 281–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Efron, R. Temporal perception, aphasia, and deja vu. Brain, 1963, 86, 403–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Faglioni, P., Scotti, G., & Spinnler, H. The performance of brain-damaged patients in spatial localization of visual and tactile stimuli. Brain, 1971, 94, 443–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Farrar, J.E. & Leigh, J. Factors associated with reading failure. Social Science and Medicine, 1972, 6, 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ferinden, W.E. & Jacobson, S. Early identification of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1970, 3, 589–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fletcher, J.M. & Satz, P. Developmental changes in neuropsychological correlates of reading achievement: In six-year longitudinal follow-up. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1980, 2, 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fountenot, D.J. & Benton, A.L. Tactile perception of direction in relation to hemispheric locus of brain. Neuropsychologia, 1971, 9, 83–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fountenot, D.J. & Benton, A.L. Perception of direction in the right and left visual fields. Neuropsychologia, 1972, 10, 447–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Franco, L. & Sperry, R.W. Hemisphere lateralization for cognitive processing of geometry. Neur opsychologia, 1977, 15, 107–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Furst, C.J. EEG alpha asymmetry and visuospatial performance. Nature, 1976, 260, 254–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Geffen, G., Bradshaw, J.L., & Wallace, G. Interhemispheric effects on reaction time to verbal and nonverbal visual stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1971, 87, 415–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gordon, H.W. Cognitive asymmetry in dyslexic families. Neuropsychologia, 1980, 18, 645–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gordon, H.W. Left hemisphere dominance for rhythm elements in dichotically-presented melodies. Cortex, 1978, 14, 58–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hagin, R.A., Silver, A.A., & Beecher, H. II TEACH: Learning tasks for the prevention of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1978, 11, 445–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hagin, R.A., Silver, A.A., & Kreeger, H. TEACH: Tasks for the prevention of learning disability. New York:Walker Educational Book Corporation, 1976.Google Scholar
  39. Hallgren, B. Specific dyslexia. Acta Psychiatrica Neuro-logica Scandanavia (Supplement), 65, 1950.Google Scholar
  40. Halperin, Y., Nachshon, I., & Carmon, A. Shift of ear superiority in dichotic listening to temporally patterned nonverbal stimuli. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 1973, 53, 46–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haring, H.G. & Ridgway, R.W. Early identification of children with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 1967, 33, 387–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Horan, M., Ashton, R., & Minto, J. Using ECT to study hemispheric specialization for sequential processes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1980, 137, 119–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Husak, W.S. & Magill, R.A. Correlations among perceptual-motor ability, self-concept and reading achievement in early elementary grades. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1979, 48, 447–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jackson, J.H.: (1874), Medical press and circular, 1:19 (reprinted in Brain, 1915, 38, 80–103.)Google Scholar
  45. Karnes, M.B. Cognitive/psycholinguistic model for educating young handicapped children. In W.M. Cruickshank (Ed.), Approaches to learning. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  46. Kaufman, A.F. Cerebral specialization and intelligence testing. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 1979, 12, 96–107.Google Scholar
  47. Kim, Y., Royer, F., Bonstelle, C., & Boller, F. Temporal sequencing of verbal and non-verbal materials: The effect of laterality of lesion. Cortex, 1980, 16, 135–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kímura, D. Spatial localization in left and right visual fields. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1969, 23, 445–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Levy, J. Cerebral lateralization and spatial ability. Behavioral Genetics, 1976, 6, 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Levy, J. & Reid, M. Variations in writing posture and cerebral organization. Science, 1976, 194, 337–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Levy, J., Trevarthen, C.B., & Sperry, R.W. Perception of chimeric figures following hemisphere deconnexion. Brain, 1972, 95, 61–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liberman, I.Y., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F.W., & Carter, B. Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1974, 18, 201–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mattis, S., French, J.H., & Rapin, I. Dyslexia in children and young adults: Three independent neurological syndromes. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1975, 17, 150–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Milner, B. & Taylor, L.B. Right hemisphere superiority in tactile pattern after cerebral commissurotomy. Neuropsychologia, 1972, 10, 1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Naidoo, S. Specific dyslexia. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1972.Google Scholar
  56. Nebes, R.D. Superiority of the minor hemisphere in commissurotomized man for the perception of part-whole relations. Cortex, 1971, 7, 333–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Nebes, R.D. Dominance of the minor hemisphere in commissurotomized man on a test of figurai unification. Brain, 1972, 95, 633–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ornstein, R., Johnstone, J., Herron, J., & Swencionis, C. Differential right hemisphere engagement in visuospatial tasks. Neuropsychologia, 1980, 18, 49–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Orton, S.T. Visual functions in strephosymbolia. Archives of Ophthalmology, 1943, 30, 707–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Parsons, O., Vega, A., & Burn, J. Different psychological effects of lateralized brain damage. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1968, 33, 551–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Patterson, A. & Zangwill, O.L. Disorders of visual space perception associated with lesions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Brain, 1944, 67, 331–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Piercy, M. & Smythe, V.O.G. Right hemisphere dominance for certain nonverbal intellectual skills. Brain, 1962, 85, 775–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ratcliff, G. Spatial thought, mental rotations and the right cerebral hemisphere. Neuropsychologia, 1979, 17, 49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Richman, L.C. & Lindgren, S.D. Patterns of intellectual ability in children with verbal deficits. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1980, 8, 65–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rizzolatti, G., Umilta, C., & Berlucchi, G. Opposite superiorities of the right and left cerebral hemispheres in discriminative reaction time to physiognomical and alphabetical material. Brain, 1971, 94, 431–442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rourke, B.P. & Orr, R.R. Prediction of the reading and spelling performance of normal and retarded readers: A four-year follow-up. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1977, 5, 9–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rugel, R.P. WISC Subtest scores of disabled readers: A review with respect to Bannatyne’s recategorization. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1974, 7, 48–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Satz, P. & Sparrow, S. Specific developmental dyslexia: A theoretical formulation. In D. Bakker & P. Satz (Eds.), Special reading disability. Rotterdam, Rotterdam University Press: 1970.Google Scholar
  69. Satz, P., Taylor, H.G., Friel, J., & Fletcher, J.M. Some developmental and predictive precursors of reading disabilities: A six year follow-up. In A.L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  70. Serwer, B.J., Shapiro, B.J., & Shapiro, P.P. Achievement prediction of “high risk” children, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1972, 35, 347–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Smith, M.D., Coleman, J.M., Dokecki, P.R., & Davis, E.E. Recategorized WISC-R scores of learning disabled children, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1977, 10, 437–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tallal, P. & Piercy, M. Defects of nonverbal auditory perception in children with developmental aphasia. Nature, 1973, 241, 468–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Taylor, H.G., Satz, P., & Friel, J. Developmental dyslexia in relation to other childhood reading disorders: significance and clinical utility. Reading Research Quarterly, 1979, 15, 84–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Umilta, C., Bagnara, S., & Simion, F. Laterality effects for simple and complex geometric figures, and nonsense patterns. Neuropsychologia, 1978, 16, 43–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Umilta, C., Rizzolatti, G., Marzi, C.A., Zamboni, G., Franzini, C., Camardo, R., & Berlucchi, G. Hemispheric differences in the discrimition of line orientation. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 165–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vellutino, F.R. Toward an understanding of dyslexia: Psychological factors in specific reading disability. In A.L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  77. Warrington, E.K. & Rabin, P. Perceptual matching in patients with cerebral lesions. Neuropsychologia, 1970, 8, 475–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Witelson, S.F. Hemispheric specialization for linquistic and nonlinquistic tactual perception using a dichotomous stimulation technique. Cortex, 1974, 10, 3–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Witelson, S.F. Developmental dyslexia: Two right hemispheres and none left. Science, 1977, 195, 309–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Witkin, H.A., Goodenough, D.R., & Karp, S.A. Stability of cognitive style from childhood to young adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967, 7, 291–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zaidel, D. & Sperry, R.W. Performance on the Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices test by subjects with cerebral commissurotomy. Cortex, 1973, 9, 34–39.Google Scholar
  82. Zaidel, E. Lexical organization in the right hemisphere. In P. Buser & A. Rougeul-Buser (Eds.), Cerebral correlates of conscious experience INSERM symposium No. 6. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  83. Zangwill, O.L. Cerebral dominance and its relations to psychological function. Felinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1960.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations