Pharmacotherapy

  • John S. Werry
Part of the Advances in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ACCP, volume 5)

Abstract

The last quarter of a century has seen many spectacular developments in medicine, one of which has been the rise of psychopharmacology or the use of drugs to change behavior and emotions. The initial discoveries were an accidental offshoot of work with antihistamine drugs in the 1940s, and clinical use was largely empirical at first. However, in the last decade, as a result of close study of these drugs coupled with better measurement techniques and improved understanding of brain function, there has been a marked change in the nature and direction of psychopharmacology from empiricism to a true science. Perhaps the best illustration of this change can be seen in the recent discovery of the morphinelike peptides called enkephalins. Within the last 5 years, not only has the site of action of these substances been identified, but the precise molecular structure and the effects of slight changes in a single amino acid in the molecule have been delineated (Treager & Coghlan, 1980).

Keywords

Depression Lithium Histamine Caffeine Acetylcholine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abikoff, H., Gittelman-Klein, R., and Klein, D. Validation of a classroom observation code for hyperactive children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45, 772–783.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aman, M. Drugs, learning and the psychotherapies. In J. S. Werry (Ed.), Pediatric psycho-pharmacology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  3. Aman, M. G. Psychotropic drugs and learning problems: A selective review. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1980, 13, 87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aman, M. G. Psychoactive drugs in mental retardation. In J. L. Matson and F. Andrasik (Eds.), Treatment issues and innovations in mental retardation. New York: Plenum Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  5. Aman, M. G., and Singh, N. N. The usefulness of thioridazine for treating childhood disorders: Fact or folklore? American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1980, 84, 331–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aman, M. G., and Werry, J. S. The effects of methylphenidate and haloperidol on the heart rate and blood pressure of hyperactive children with special reference to time of action. Psychopharmacologia,1975, 43, 163–168. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aman, M. G., and Werry, J. S. Methylphenidate in children: Effects upon cardiorespiratory function on exertion. International Journal of Mental Health, 1975, 4, 119–131.Google Scholar
  8. Astin, A. W., and Ross, S. Glutamic acid and human intelligence. Psychological Bulletin, 1960, 57, 429–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barkley, R. A. Predicting the response of hyperkinetic children to stimulant drugs: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1976, 4, 327–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barkley, R. A. A review of stimulant drug research with hyperactive children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1977, 18, 137–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barkley, R. A. Hyperactive children: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford, 1981.Google Scholar
  12. Barkley, R. A., and Cunningham, C. E. Do stimulant drugs improve the academic performance of hyperkinetic children? A review of outcome research. Clinical Pediatrics, 1978, 17, 85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barkley, R. A., and Cunningham, C. E. The parent-child interactions of hyperactive children and their modification by stimulant drugs. In R. M. Knights and D. J. Bakker (Eds.), Treatment of hyperactive and learning disordered children. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. Blackwell, B., and Currah, J. The psychopharmacology of nocturnal enuresis. In I. Kolvin, R. McKeith, and S. Meadow (Eds.), Bladder control and enuresis. London: Heinemann, 1973.Google Scholar
  15. Briant, R. H. An introduction to clinical pharmacology. In J. S. Worry (Ed.), Pediatric psychopharmacology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/ Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, G. L., Ebert, M. H., Mikkelsen, E. J., and Hunt, R. D. Behavior and motor activity response in hyperactive children and plasma amphetamine levels following a sustained release preparation. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1980, 19, 225–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Campbell, M. Psychopharmacology in childhood psychosis. International Journal of Mental Health, 1975, 4, 238–254.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, M., Schulman, D., and Rapoport, J. L. The current status of lithium therapy in child and adolescent psychiatry: A report of the Committee on Biological Aspects of Child Psychiatry of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, December, 1977. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1978, 17, 717–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell, M., Cohen, I. L., and Small, A. M. Drugs in aggressive behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1982, 21, 107–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cantwell, D. P., and Carlson, G. A. Stimulants. In J. S. Worry (Ed.), Pediatric psychopharmacology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, D. J., and Young, J. G. Neurochemistry of child psychiatry. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1977, 16, 353–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, D. J., Shaywitz, B. A., Young, J. G., Carbonari, C. M., Nathanson, J. A., Lieberman, D., Bowers, M. B., and Maas, J. W. Central biogenic amine metabolism in children with the syndrome of chronic multiple tics of Gilles de la Tourette: Norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1979, 18, 320–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Conners, C. K. A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children. America(Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 126, 152–156.Google Scholar
  24. Conners, C. K. Symptom patterns in hyperkinetic, neurotic and normal children. Child Development, 1970, 41, 667–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Conners, C. K. Rating scales for use in drug studies in children. Psychopharmacology Bulletin,1973, 24–84. (Special issue)Google Scholar
  26. Conners, C. K. Pharmacotherapy of psychopathology in children. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (1st ed.). New York: Wiley, 1972Google Scholar
  27. Conners, C. K., and Worry, J. S. Pharmacotherapy. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Worry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  28. Current research in childhood depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychia-try, 1979, 18, 583–627.Google Scholar
  29. The diagnostic process and diagnostic classification in child psychiatry: DSM-111. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1980, 19, 345–438.Google Scholar
  30. Eisenberg, L., Gilbert, A., Cytryn, L., and Moiling, P. The effectiveness of psychotherapy alone and in conjunction with perphenazine or placebo in the treatment of neurotic and hyperkinetic children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1961, 117, 1088–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gadow, K. D. Children on medication: A primer for school personnel. Reston, Va.: Council for Exceptional Children, 1979.Google Scholar
  32. Gittelman-Klein, R. Validity of projective tests for psychodiagnosis in children. In R. Spitzer and D. Klein (Eds.), Critical issues in psychiatric diagnosis. New York: Raven Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  33. Gittelman-Klein, R. Psychopharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and tic disorders of childhood. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  34. Gittelman, R., Klein, D. F., Abikoff, H., Katz, S., Pollack, E., and Mattes, J. A controlled trial of behavior modification and methylphenidate in hyperactive children. In C. K. Whalen and B. Henker (Eds.), Hyperactive children: The social ecology of identification and treatment. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  35. Gittelman-Klein, R., Spitzer, R. L., and Cantwell, D. P. Diagnostic classifications and psychopharmacological indications. In J. S. Werry (Ed.), Pediatric psychopharmacology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  36. Glow, R. A. A validation of Conners TQ and a cross-cultural comparison of prevalence of hyperactivity in children. In G. D. Burrows and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Advances in human psychopharmacology. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  37. Goyette, C. H., Conners, C. K., and Ulrich, R. F. Normative data on revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1978, 6, 221–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Greenblatt, S., and Shader, R. Benzodiazepines in clinical practice. New York: Raven Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  39. Grinspoon, L., and Singer, B. Amphetamines in the treatment of hyperkinetic children. Harvard Educational Review, 1972, 43, 515–555.Google Scholar
  40. Gualtieri, C. T., Barnhill, J., McGimsey, J., and Schell, D. Tardive dyskinesia in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1980, 19, 491–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gualtieri, C. T., Wargin, S., Kanoy, R., Patrick, K., Shen, C. D., Youngblood, W., Mueller, R. A., and Breese, G. R. Clinical studies of methylphenidate serum levels in children and adults. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1982, 21, 19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guy, W. ECDEU assessment manual for psychopharmacology. Rockville, Md.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1976.Google Scholar
  43. Hastings, J., and Barkley, R. A. A review of psychophysiological research with hyperkinetic children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1978, 6, 413–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hollister, I. E., Davis, K. L., and Berger, P. A. Cholinergic mechanisms in mental or nervous disorders. In G. D. Burrows and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Advances in human psychopharmacology (Vol. 2 ). Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  45. Lewis, J., and Young, R. Deanol and methylphenidate in minimal brain dysfunction. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1975, 17, 534–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lipman, R. S. The use of psychopharmacological agents in residential facilities for the retarded. In F. J. Menolascino (Ed.), Psychiatric approaches to mental retardation. New York: Basic Books, 1970.Google Scholar
  47. Lipman, R. S. Psychotropic drugs and the mentally retarded: What we know and what we need to know. Unpublished manuscript, 1980.Google Scholar
  48. Lipman, R. S., DiMascio, A., Reatig, N., and Kirson, T. Psychotropic drugs and mentally retarded children. In M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killam (Eds.), Psychophar-macology: A generation of progress. New York: Raven Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  49. Manheimer, D. I., Davidson, S. T., Batter, M. B., Mellinger, G. D., Cisin, I. H., and Parry, H. J. Popular attitudes and beliefs about tranquilizers. American journal of Psychiatry, 1973, 1, 30, 1246–1255.Google Scholar
  50. Puig-Antich, J., Perel, J. M., Lupatkin, W., Chambers, W. J., Shea, C., Tabrizi, M. A., and Stiller, R. L. Plasma levels of imipramine (IMI) and desmethylimipramine (DM1) and clinical response in prepubertal major depressive disorder: A preliminary report. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1979, 18, 616–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Quay, H. C. Classification. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  52. Rapoport, J. L. Self-report, social and emotional functioning measures. In Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical evaluation of psychoactive agents in infants and children (Publication No. HEW/FDA 78–3055 ). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.Google Scholar
  53. Rapoport, J. L., and Mikkelsen, E. J. Antidepressants. In J. S. Werry (Ed.), Pediatric psycho-pharmacology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  54. Rapoport, J. L., Buchsbaum, M. S., Zahn, T. P., Weingarten, H., Ludlow, C., and Mikkelsen, E. Dextroamphetamine: Cognitive and behavioral effects in normal prepubertal boys. Science,1978, 199,560–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rapoport, J. L., Mikkelsen, E. J., and Werry, J. S. Antimanic, antianxiety, hallucinogenic and miscellaneous drugs. In J. S. Werry (Ed.), Pediatric psychopharmacology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/hazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  56. Ray, O. Drugs, society and human behavior. St. Louis: Mosby, 1972.Google Scholar
  57. Reatig, N. Federal regulations of affecting psychopharmacology research in the U.S. In G. D. Burrows and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Advances in human psychopharmacology (Vol. 2 ). Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  58. Rie, H., Rie, E., Stewart, S., and Ambuel, J. Effects of methylphenidate on underachieving children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1976, 44, 250–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Robbins, T. W., and Sahakian, B. J. “Paradoxical” effects of psychomotor stimulant drugs in hyperactive children from the standpoint of behavioural pharmacology. Neuropharmacology, 1979, 18, 931–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Roche, A. F., Lipman, R. S., Overall, J. E., and Hung, W. The effects of stimulant medication on the growth of hyperkinetic children. Pediatrics, 1979, 63, 847–850.Google Scholar
  61. Ross, D. M., and Ross, S. A. Hyperactivity: Research, theory, action. New York: Wiley, 1976.Google Scholar
  62. Routh, D. K. Developmental and social aspects of hyperactivity. In C. K. Whalen and B. Henker (Eds.), Hyperactive children: The social ecology of identification and treatment. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  63. Rutter, M. L., Graham, P., and Yule, W. A neuropsychiatrie study in childhood. London: Heinemann, 1970.Google Scholar
  64. Saraf, K., Klein, D., Gittelman-Klein, R., and Graff, S. Imipramine and side effects in children. Psychopharmacologia, 1974, 37, 265–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schrag, P., and Divoky, D. The myth of the hyperactive child. New York: Pantheon Books, 1975Google Scholar
  66. Shaywitz, B., Yager, R., and Klopper, J. Selective brain dopamine depletion in developing rats: An experimental model of minimal brain dysfunction. Science, 1976, 191, 305–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Silbergeld, E., and Goldberg, A. Pharmacological and neurochemical investigations of lead-induced hyperactivity. Neuropharmacology, 1975, 14, 431–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Singh, N. N., and Aman, M. G. Effects of thioridazine dosages on the behavior of severely retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1981, 85, 580–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Sleator, E., von Neumann, A., and Sprague, R. Hyperactive children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1974, 229, 316–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sprague, R. L. Principles of clinical trials and social, ethical and legal issues of drug use in children. In J. S. Werry (Ed.), Pediatric psychopharmacology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  71. Sprague, R. L., and Sleator, E. K. What is the proper dose of stimulant drugs in children? International Journal of Mental Health, 1975, 4, 75–118.Google Scholar
  72. Sprague, R. L., and Sleator, E. K. Methylphenidate in hyperkinetic children: Differences in dose effects on learning and social behavior. Science, 1977, 98, 1274–1276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sprague, R. L., and Werry, J. S. Methodology of psychopharmacological studies with the retarded. In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation (Vol. 5 ). New York: Academic Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  74. Sroufe, A. Drug treatment of children with behavior problems. In F. Horowitz (Ed.), Review of child developmental research (Vol. 4 ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  75. Stores, G. Antiepileptics (anticonvulsants). In J. S. Werry (Ed.), Pediatric psychopharmacol-ogy: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978Google Scholar
  76. Sulzbacher, S. I. Psychotropic medication with children: An evaluation of procedural biases in results of reported studies. Pediatrics, 1973, 51, 513–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Treager, G. W., and Coghlan, J. P. Enkephalin and endorphin. In G. D. Burrows and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Advances in human psychopharmacology. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  78. Trimble, M., and Reynolds, E. Anticonvulsant drugs and mental symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 1976, 6, 169–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Vogel, W., Broverman, D. M., Draguns, J. G., and Klaiber, E. L. The role of glutamic acid in cognitive behaviors. Psychological Bulletin, 1966, 65, 367–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Weiss, B., and Laties, V. Enhancement of human performance by caffeine and the amphetamines. Pharmacological Review, 1962, 14, 1–36.Google Scholar
  81. Werry, J. S. Measures in pediatric psychopharmacology. In J. S. Werry (Ed.), Pediatric psychopharmacology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/ Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  82. Werry, J. S. Organic factors. In C. H. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  83. Werry, J. S. The childhood psychoses. In H. C. Quay and J. C. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  84. Werry, J. S. Psychosomatic disorders, psychogenic symptoms, and hospitalization. In H. C. Quay and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley, 1979.Google Scholar
  85. Werry, J. S. Anticholinergic sedatives. In G. D. Burrows and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Advances in human psychopharmacology. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  86. Werry, J. S., and Aman, M. G. Methylphenidate and haloperidol in children: Effects on attention, memory, and activity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 790–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Werry, J. S., and Aman, M. G. Anxiety in children. In G. D. Burrows and B. Davies (Eds.), Handbook of studies in anxiety. The Hague: Elsevier, 1980.Google Scholar
  88. Werry, J. S., and Aman, M. G. Methylphenidate in hyperactive and enuretic children. In B. Shopsin and L. Greenhill (Eds.), The psychobiology of childhood: Profile of current issues. Jamaica, N.Y.: Spectrum Press, in press.Google Scholar
  89. Werry, J. S., and Carlielle, J. The nuclear family depression iatrogenisis and mothers of children under five in Auckland. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry,in press.Google Scholar
  90. Werry, J. S., and Quay, H. C. Observing the classroom behavior of elementary school children. Exceptional Children, 1969, 35, 461–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Werry, J. S., and Sprague, R. L. Methylphenrdate in children: Effect of dosage. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 1979, 8, 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Worry, J. S., Aman, M. G., and Diamond, E. L. Imipramine and methylphenidate in hyper-active children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1980, 21, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wahlen, C. K., Henker, B., and Dotemoto, S. Methylphenidate and hyperactivity: Effects on teacher behaviors. Science, 1980, 208, 1280–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Winsberg, B. G., and Yepes, L. E. Antipsychotics (major tranquilizers, neuroleptics). In J. S. Werry (Ed.), Pediatric psychopharnmcology: The use of behavior modifying drugs in children. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.Google Scholar
  95. Wolraich, M., Drummond, T., Salomon, M., O’Brien, M., and Sivage, C. Effects of methylphenidate alone and in combination with behavior modification procedures on the behavior and academic performance of hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1978, 6, 149–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yellin, A. M., Spring, C., and Greenberg, L. M. Effects of imipramine and methylphenidate on behavior of hyperactive children. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior, 1978, 3, 15–25.Google Scholar
  97. Young, J. G., Mikkelsen, E. J., and Cohen, D. J. Neurobiological approaches to the treatment of children with severe psychiatric disorders. In G. D. Burrows and J. S. Werry (Eds.), Advances in human psychopharmacology (Vol. 2 ). Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  98. Youngerman, J., and Canino, I. Lithium carbonate use in children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1978, 35, 216–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • John S. Werry
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations