Advertisement

Pesticide Effects on Soil Algae and Cyanobacteria

  • Annette E. Pipe
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 127)

Abstract

Despite increasing research efforts toward crop improvement by methods obviating the use of pesticides (Day 1987), agriculture remains heavily dependent on these chemicals (Gadkari 1988; Greaves et al. 1988). The importance of monitoring the effect of pesticides on nontarget organisms has been emphasized (Hill and Wright 1978). Among those nontarget organisms potentially susceptible to pesticides are the soil algae and cyanobacteria; these are known to contribute to the maintenance of soil fertility and are consequently considered to be an important component of soil microflora (McCann and Cullimore 1979). It is therefore imperative that regular monitoring be undertaken to evaluate the influence of pesticides on these organisms. A review of published work on this subject appeared in 1979 (McCann and Cullimore). Although other more recent reviews on related topics have been published (Lal and Saxena 1980; MacRae 1989; Padhy 1985; Sharma 1986; Stratton 1987), studies on the precise topic of pesticide effects on soil algae and cyanobacteria have not been reviewed since 1979. The present article aims to do this. The uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of pesticides by soil algae and cyanobacteria are not addressed in this review.

Keywords

Nitrogen Fixation Paddy Field Test Organism Simulated Acid Rain Soil Alga 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander M (1985) Enhancing nitrogen fixation by use of pesticides: A review. Adv Agron 38: 267–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babich H, Stotzky G (1986) Environmental factors affecting the utility of microbial assays for the toxicity and mutagenicity of chemical pollutants. In: Dutka BJ, Bitton G (eds) Toxicity Testing Using Microorganisms, Vol II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 9–42.Google Scholar
  3. Bold HC, Wynne MJ (1978) Introduction to the Algae. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p 34.Google Scholar
  4. Cain JR, Cain RK (1983) The effects of selected herbicides on zygospore germination and growth of Chlamydomonas moewusii ( Chlorophyceae, Volvocales). J Phycol 19: 301–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cameron HJ, Julian GR (1984) The effects of four commonly used fungicides on the growth of Cyanobacteria. Plant Soil 78: 409–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caplan JA, Isensee AR, Nelson JO (1984) Fate and effect of (14C) fenvalerate in a tidal marsh sediment ecosystem model. J Agric Food Chem 32: 166–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chinnaswamy R, Patel RJ (1983) Effect of pesticide mixtures on the blue-green alga Anabaena flosaquae. Microb Lett 24: 141–143.Google Scholar
  8. Cullimore DR (1975) The in vitro sensitivity of some species of Chlorophyceae to a selected range of herbicides. Weed Res 15: 401–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Day PR (1987) Crop improvement: Constraints and challenges. In: British Crop Protection Conference on weeds. BCPC Pub, Surrey, UK pp 3–12.Google Scholar
  10. DeNoyelles F, Kettle WD, Sinn DE (1982). The responses of plankton communities in experimental ponds to atrazine, the most heavily used pesticide in the United States. Ecology 63: 1285–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Domsch KH, Jagnow G, Anderson TH (1983) An ecological concept for the assessment of side-effects of agrochemicals on soil microorganisms. Residue Reviews 86: 65–105.Google Scholar
  12. Forget G (1991) Pesticides and the third world. J Toxicol Environ Hlth 32: 11–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gadkari D (1988) Assessment of the effects of the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides diuron, DCMU, metamitron and metribuzin on growth and nitrogenase activity of Nostoc muscorum and a new cyanobacterial isolate, strain G4. Biol Fertil Soils 6: 50–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gangawane LV (1979) Tolerance of Thimet by nitrogen fixing blue-green algae. Pesticides 13: 33–34.Google Scholar
  15. Gangawane LV, Saler RS (1979) Tolerance of certain fungicides by nitrogen fixing blue-green algae. Curr Sci 48: 306–308.Google Scholar
  16. Gangawane LV (1980) Tolerance of N-fixing blue-green algae to brassicol, bavistin and fytolan. J Ind Bot Soc 59: 157–160.Google Scholar
  17. Goulding KH, Ellis S (1981) The interaction of DDT with two species of water algae. Environ Pollut Ser A 25: 271–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grant IF, Alexander M (1981) Grazing of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in flooded soils by Cypris sp ( Ostracoda ). Soil Sci Soc Am J 45: 773–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grant IF, Tirol AC, Aziz T, Watanabe I (1983) Regulation of invertebrate grazers as a means to enhance biomass and nitrogen fixation of Cyanophyceae in wetland rice fields. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47: 669–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greaves MP, Smith BD, Greig-Smith PW (eds) (1988) Field Methods for the Study of Environmental Effects of Pesticides. BCPC Mono 40, BCPC Pub, Surrey, UK, pp viii–ix.Google Scholar
  21. Hartley D, Kidd H (eds) (1985) The Agrochemicals Handbook. Royal Soc of Chem, Un win Brothers Ltd, Old Woking, Surrey, UK.Google Scholar
  22. Hill IR, Wright SJL (eds) (1978) Pesticide Microbiology. Academic Press, London, pp vii–x.Google Scholar
  23. Hutber GN, Rogers LJ, Smith AJ (1979) Influence of pesticides on the growth of cyanobacteria. Z Allg Mikrobiol 19: 397–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kapoor K, Sharma VK (1980) Effect of certain herbicides on survival, growth and nitrogen fixation of blue-green alga Anabaena doliolum Bharadwaja. Z Allg Mikrobiol 20: 465–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kar S, Singh PK (1978) Effect of pH, light intensity and population on the toxicity of the pesticide carbofuran to the blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum. Microbios 21: 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kar S, Singh PK (1979a) Detoxification of pesticides carbofuran and hexachloro- cyclohexane by blue-green algae Nostoc muscorum and Wollea bharadwajae. Microb Lett 10: 111–114.Google Scholar
  27. Kar S, Singh PK (1979b) Effect of nutrients on the toxicity of pesticides carbofuran and hexachlorocyclohexane to blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum. Z Allg Mikrobiol 19: 467–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kashyap AK, Pandey KD (1982) Inhibitory effects of rice-field herbicide Machete on Anabaena doliolum Bharadwaja and protection by nitrogen sources. Z Pflanzenphysiol 107: 339–345.Google Scholar
  29. Kaushik BD, Venkataraman GS (1983) Response of cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation to insecticides. Curr Sci 52: 321–323.Google Scholar
  30. Khalil K, Chaporkar CB, Gangawane LV (1980) Tolerances of blue-green algae to herbicides. In: Proceedings of National Work on Algal Systems. Indian Soc of Biotechnol, IIT, New Delhi, pp 36–39.Google Scholar
  31. Lai R, Saxena DM (1980) Cytological and biochemical effects of pesticides on microorganisms. Residue Reviews 73: 49–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lai R, Saxena DM (1982) Accumulation, metabolism, and effects of organochlorine insecticides on microorganisms. Microbiol Rev 46: 95–127.Google Scholar
  33. Linka MJ (1978) Studies on the influence of the herbicide HOE-23408 on selected cultures of algae (in vitro) and on soil algae (in vivo). B.Sc. honors thesis, Univ of Regina, Canada.Google Scholar
  34. MacRae IC (1989) Microbial metabolism of pesticides and structurally related compounds. Reviews Environ Contam Toxicol 109: 1–87.Google Scholar
  35. Maule A, Wright SJL (1983) Physiological effects of chlorpropham and 3-chloroaniline on some cyanobacteria and a green alga. Pestic Biochem Physiol 19: 196–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maule A, Wright SJL (1984) Herbicide effects on the population growth of some green algae and cyanobacteria. J Appl Bacteriol 57: 369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McCann AE, Cullimore DR (1979) Influence of pesticides on the soil algal flora. Residue Reviews 72: 1–31.Google Scholar
  38. Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Rao AS (1986a) Effect of monocrotophos and quinalphos on soil algae. Environ Pollut Ser A 40: 121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Rao AS (1986b) Growth response of four species of soil algae to monocrotophos and quinalphos. Environ Pollut Ser A 42: 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Rao AS (1986c) Influence of Cypermethrin and fenvalerate on natural soil algal populations. Ecotox Environ Saf 12: 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Megharaj M, Venkateswarlu K, Rao AS (1987) Influence of Cypermethrin and fenvalerate on a green alga and three cyanobacteria isolated from soil. Ecotox Environ Saf 14: 142–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Metting B, Rayburn W (1979) The effects of the pre-emergence herbicide diallate and the post-emergence herbicide MCPA on the growth of some soil algae. Phycologia 18: 269–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mishra AK, Tiwari DN (1986) Effect of tryptophan on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid toxicity in nitrogen fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia. J Basic Microbiol 26: 49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mishra AK, Pandey AB (1989) Toxicity of three herbicides to some nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Ecotox Environ Saf 17: 236–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mishra AK, Pandey AB, Kumar HD (1989) Effects of three pesticides on MSX- induced ammonia photoproduction by the cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia. Ecotox Environ Saf 18: 145–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Muralikrishna PVG, Venkateswarlu K (1984) Effect of insecticides on soil algal population. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 33: 241–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Padhy RN (1985) Cyanobacteria and pesticides. Residue Reviews 95: 1–44.Google Scholar
  48. Pandey KD, Kashyap AK (1986) Differential sensitivity of three cyanobacteria to the rice field herbicide Machete. J Basic Microbiol 26: 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pipe AE, Cullimore DR (1980) An implanted slide technique for examining the effects of the herbicide diuron on soil algae. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24: 306–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pipe AE, Cullimore DR (1984) Influence of five phenylurea herbicides on the diatom Hantzschia in a sandy loam soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 33: 439–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pipe AE, Shubert LE (1984) The use of algae as indicators of soil fertility. In: Shubert LE (ed) Algae as Ecological Indicators. Academic Press, London, pp 213–233.Google Scholar
  52. Pipe AE (1987) The influence of the herbicide trifluralin, alone and in the presence of simulated acid rain, on the algae and cyanobacteria of a sandy loam soil. In: British Crop Protection Conference on Weeds. BCPC Pub, Surrey, UK, pp 507–514.Google Scholar
  53. Plumley FG, Davis DE (1980) The effects of a photosynthesis inhibitor atrazine, on salt marsh edaphic algae, in culture, microecosystems, and in the field. Estuaries 3: 271–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Roberts TR, Standen ME (1977) Degradation of the pyrethroids Cypermethrin NRDC 149(±) -a -cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(±) -eis, trans-3 -(2,2-dichlorovinyl) -2,2 -di- methyl cyclopropane carboxylate and the respective eis (NRDC 160) and trans (NRDC 159) isomers in soils. Pestic Sci 8: 305–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sharma VK, Gaur YS (1981) Nitrogen fixation by pesticide-adapted strains of paddy- field cyanophytes. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 7: 117–122.Google Scholar
  56. Sharma VK (1986) A review of recent work on pesticide studies on the nitrogen- fixing algae. J Environ Biol 7: 171–175.Google Scholar
  57. Shukla DS, Chaturvedi R, Srivastava SK (1990) Effect of various fungicides on microbial population of soil and some soil factors. J Environ Biol 11: 291–298.Google Scholar
  58. Singh LJ, Tiwari DN (1988a) Some important parameters in the evaluation of herbicide toxicity in diazotrophic cyanobacteria. J Appl Bacteriol 64: 365–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Singh LJ, Tiwari DN (1988b) Effects of selected rice-field herbicides on photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilating enzyme systems of paddy soil diazotrophic cyanobacteria. Pestic Biochem Physiol 31: 120–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Singh RK, Singh BD, Singh HN (1983) Inhibition of photosystem II of nitrogen- fixing blue-green alga Nostoc linckia by the rice-field herbicide benthiocarb. Z Allg Mikrobiol 23: 435–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stockner JG, Antia NJ (1976) Phytoplankton adaptation to environmental stresses from toxicants, nutrients and pollutants—a warning. J Fish Res Board Can 33: 2089–2096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stratton GW, Burrell RE, Kurp ML, Corke CT (1980) Interactions between the solvent acetone and the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin on activities of the blue- green alga Anabaena. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24: 562–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stratton GW, Corke CT (1981) Interaction between acetone and two pesticides towards several unicellular green algae. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 27: 13–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stratton GW, Corke CT (1982) Toxicity of the insecticide permethrin and some degradation products towards algae and cyanobacteria. Environ Pollut Ser A 29: 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stratton GW (1983) Interaction effects of permethrin and atrazine combinations towards several nontarget microorganisms. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 31: 297–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stratton GW (1984) Effects of the herbicide atrazine and its degradation products, alone and in combination, on phototrophic microorganisms. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 13: 35–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stratton GW (1985) Interaction effects of mercury-pesticide combinations towards a cyanobacterium. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 34: 676–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stratton GW (1987) The effects of pesticides and heavy metals towards phototrophic microorganisms. Rev Environ Toxicol 3: 71–147.Google Scholar
  69. Stratton GW (1989) Effect of the solvent acetone on membrane integrity in the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 42: 754–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tandon RS, Lai R, Rao VVSN (1988) Interaction of endosulfan and malathion with blue-green algae Anabaena and Aulosira fertilissima. Environ Pollut 52: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tandon RS, Lai R, Rao VVSN (1988) Interaction of endosulfan and malathion with blue-green algae Anabaena and Aulosira fertilissima. Environ Pollut 52: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vaishampayan A (1984a) Biological effects of a herbicide on a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium (blue-green alga): An attempt for introducing herbicide-resistance. New Phytol 96: 7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vaishampayan A (1984b) Powerful mutagenicity of a bipyridylium herbicide in a nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga Nostoc muscorum. Mutat Res 138: 39–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vaishampayan A (1985) Mutagenic activity of alachlor, butachlor and carbaryl to a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. J Agric Sci 104: 571–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Van Straalen NM, Denneman CAJ (1989) Ecotoxicological evaluation of soil quality criteria. Ecotox Environ Saf 18: 241–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Watanabe A (1962) Effect of nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga Tolypothrix tenuis on the nitrogenous fertility of paddy soils and on the crop yield of rice plant. J Gen Appl Microbiol 8: 85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wegener KE, Aldag R, Meyer B (1985) Soil algae: Effects of herbicides on growth and C2H2 reduction (nitrogenase) activity. Soil Biol Biochem 17: 641–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wilson JT, Greene S, Alexander M (1979) Effect of interactions among algae on nitrogen-fixation by blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) in flooded soils. Appl Environ Microbiol 38: 916–921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Worthing CR, Hance RJ (eds) (1991) The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium, 9th ed. Brit Crop Protection Council, Unwin Brothers Ltd, Old Woking, Surrey.Google Scholar
  80. Wright SJL (1978) Interactions of pesticides with micro-algae. In: Hill IR, Wright SJL (eds) Pesticide Microbiology. Academic Press, London, pp 535–601.Google Scholar
  81. Zargar MY, Dar GH (1990) Effect of benthiocarb and butachlor on growth and nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 45: 232–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zurek L (1981) The influence of the herbicides lenacil and pyrazon on the soil algae. Ekologia Pol ska 29: 327–342.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annette E. Pipe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesLakeland CollegeVermilionCanada

Personalised recommendations