Advertisement

Dietary Pesticide Risk Assessment

  • Carl K. Winter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 127)

Abstract

Much current concern exists regarding the potential health risks from dietary exposure to pesticides. A recent consumer attitude survey, e.g., revealed that 80% of U.S. shoppers consider pesticide residues to be a major concern (Opinion Research Corporation 1990). This concern is reflected in calls for legislative reform to provide additional consumer protection from residues.

Keywords

Pesticide Residue Residue Level Total Diet Market Basket General Account Office 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott DC, Holmes DC, Tatton JO (1969) Pesticide residues in the total diet in England and Wales 1966–67: II. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the total diet. J Sci Food Agric 29: 245–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abbott DC, Crisp S, Tarrant KR, Tatton JO (1970) Pesticide residues in the total diet in England and Wales, 1966: III. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in the total diet. Pestic Sci 1: 10–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abbott DC, Tatton JO (1970) Pesticide residues in the total diet in England and Wales, 1966–67: IV. Mercury content of the total diet. Pestic Sci 1: 99–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander BV, Clayton CA (1986) Documentation of the Food Consumption Files Used in the Tolerance Assessment System. Res Triangle Inst, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  5. Ames BN, Gold LS (1990) Too many rodent carcinogens: Mitogenesis increases mutagenesis. Science 249: 970–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Archibald SO (1989) Review: Regulating pesticides in food: The Delaney paradox. Land Econ 65: 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Archibald SO, Winter CK (1990) Pesticides in our food: Assessing the risks. In: Winter CK, Seiber JN, Nuckton CF (eds) Chemicals in the Human Food Chain. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 1–50.Google Scholar
  8. California Assembly Office of Research (1988) The Invisible Diet: Gaps in California’s Pesticide Residue Detection Program. Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  9. California Department of Food and Agriculture (1988) Pesticide Residue Annual Report for 1987. Pesticide Enforcement Branch, Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  10. California Department of Food and Agriculture (1989) Pesticide Residue Annual Report for 1988. Pesticide Enforcement Branch, Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  11. California Department of Food and Agriculture (1990) Pesticide Residue Annual Report for 1989. Pesticide Enforcement Branch, Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  12. California Department of Food and Agriculture (1991) Pesticide Residue Annual Report for 1990. Pesticide Enforcement Branch, Sacramento, CA.Google Scholar
  13. Carrasco JM, Cunat P, Martinez M, Primo E (1976) Pesticide residues in total diet samples, Spain—1971–72. Pestic Monit J 10: 18–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control (1986) Aldicarb food poisoning from contaminated melons—California. J Am Med Assoc 256: 175–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaisson CF, Petersen B, Eickhoff JC (1987) Pesticides in our Food: Facts, Issues, Debates and Perceptions. Tech Assessment Systs, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  16. Chaisson CF (1990) Survey reveals significant changes in American diet. TAS Review 2: 1–2.Google Scholar
  17. Chin HB (1991) The effect of processing on residues in foods: The food processing industry’s database. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corneliussen PE (1969) Pesticide residues in total diet samples (IV). Pestic Monit J 2: 140–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Corneliussen PE (1970) Pesticide residues in total diet samples (V). Pestic Monit J 4: 89–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Corneliussen PE (1972) Pesticide residues in total diet samples (VI). Pestic Monit J 5: 313–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummings JG (1965) Total diet study, pesticide residues in total diet samples. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 48: 1177–1180.Google Scholar
  22. Cummings JG (1966) Pesticides in the total diet. Residue Reviews 16: 30–45.Google Scholar
  23. DeVos RH, van Dokkum W, Olthof PD, Quirijns JK, Muys T, van der Poll JM (1984) Pesticides and other chemical residues in Dutch total diet samples (June 1976–July 1978). Food Chem Toxicol 22: 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Driss MR, Bouguerra ML (1987) Organochlorine residues in the Tunisian market basket. Acta Biologica Hungarica 38: 101–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Duggan RE, Barry HC, Johnson LY (1966) Pesticide residues in total diet samples ( I). Science 151: 101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Duggan RE, Barry HC, Johnson LY (1967) Pesticide residues in total diet samples ( II ). Pestic Monit J 1: 2–12.Google Scholar
  27. Egan H, Weston RE (1977) Pesticide residues: Food surveys in the United Kingdom. Pestic Sci 8: 110–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Elkins ER, Farrow RP, Kim ES (1972) The effect of heat processing and storage on pesticide residues in spinach and apricots. J Agric Food Chem 20: 286–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elkins ER (1989) Effect of commercial processing on pesticide residues in selected fruits and vegetables. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 72: 533–535.Google Scholar
  30. Eilrich GL (1991) Tracking the fate of residues from the farm gate to the table. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 202–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Engler R, Levy R (1991) Comparison of conventional risk assessment with cancer risk assessment. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 226–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ENVIRON (1986) Elements of Toxicology and Chemical Risk Assessment. ENVIRON Corp, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  33. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1985) Health Assessment Document for Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride). EPA/600/8-82/004F, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  34. EPA (1986) Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed Reg 51: 33992–34003.Google Scholar
  35. Farrow RP, Elkins ER, Rose WW, Lamb FC, Ralls JW, Mercer WA (1969) Canning operations that reduce insecticide levels in prepared foods and in solid food wastes. Residue Reviews 29: 73–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (1988) Residues in foods—1987. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 71: 156A–174A.Google Scholar
  37. FDA (1989) Residues in foods—1988. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 72: 133A–152A.Google Scholar
  38. FDA (1990) Residues in foods—1989. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 73: 127A–146A.Google Scholar
  39. FDA (1991) Residues in foods—1990. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 74. 121A–141A.Google Scholar
  40. Ferrer A, Cabral JP (1989) Epidemics due to pesticide contamination of food. Food Add Contam 6: S95–S98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fuhremann TW (1991) Food safety assessment for various classes of carcinogens. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 221–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gartrell MJ, Craun JC, Podrebarac S, Gunderson EL (1986) Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples, October 1980—March 1982. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 69: 146–161.Google Scholar
  43. General Accounting Office (GAO) (1986) Pesticides: Need to Enhance FDA’s Ability to Protect the Public from Illegal Residues. GAO/RCED-87-7, U.S. General Accounting Office, U.S. Gov Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  44. GAO (1991) Pesticides: Food Consumtion Data of Little Value to Estimate Some Exposures. GAO/RCED-91–125, U.S. General Accounting Office, U.S. Gov Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  45. Gianessi LP (1991) Use of pesticides in the United States. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 24–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goldman LR, Beller M, Jackson RJ (1990) Aldicarb food poisonings in California, 1985–1988: Toxicity estimates for humans. Arch Environ Hlth 45: 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gunderson EL (1988) FDA total diet study, April 1982-April 1984, dietary intakes of pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 71: 1200–1209.Google Scholar
  48. Harries JM, Jones CM, Tatton JO (1969) Pesticide residues in the total diet in England and Wales, 1966–1967: I. Organisation of a total diet study. J Sci Food Agric 20: 242–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hopper LD, Oehme FW (1989) Chemical risk assessment: A review. Vet Hum Toxicol 31: 543–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hundley HK, Cairns T, Luke MA, Masumoto HT (1988) Pesticide residue findings by the Luke method in domestic and imported foods and animal feeds for fiscal years 1982–1986. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 71: 875–892.Google Scholar
  51. Ishikura S, Onodera S, Sumiyashiki S, Kasahara T, Nakayama M, Watanabe S (1984) Evaporation and thermal decomposition of organophosphorus pesticides during cooking of rice. J Food Hyg Soc Japan 25: 203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson RD, Manske DD (1976) Pesticide residues in total diet samples ( IX ). Pestic Monit J 9: 157–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Johnson RD, Manske DD (1977) Pesticide and other chemical residues in total diet samples ( XI ). Pestic Monit J 11: 116–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson RD, Manske DD, New DH, Podrebarac DS (1984) Pesticide, metal, and other chemical residues in adult total diet samples (XIII), August 1976-September 1977. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 67: 154–166.Google Scholar
  55. Joint FAO/WHO Consultation (1988) Guidelines for predicting the dietary intake of pesticide residues. Bull World Hlth Org 66: 429–434.Google Scholar
  56. Kilham CS (1991) The Bread and Circus Whole Food Bible. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Google Scholar
  57. Kubacki SJ, Lipowska T (1980) The role of food processing in decreasing pesticide contamination of foods. In: Birch GG, Parker KJ (eds) Food and Health: Science and Technology. Appl Sci Pub, London, pp 215–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lentza-Rizos C (1990) Ethylenethiourea (ETU) in relation to use of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides. Reviews Environ Contam Toxicol 115: 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liska BJ, Stadelman WJ (1969) Effects of processing on pesticides in foods. Residue Reviews 29: 61–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lombardo P (1989) The FDA pesticides program: Goals and new approaches. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 72: 518–520.Google Scholar
  61. Luke MA, Masumoto HT, Cairns T, Hundley HK (1988) Levels and incidences of pesticide residues in various foods and animal feeds analyzed by the Luke multiresidue methodology for fiscal years 1982–1986. J Assoc Offic Chem 71:415– 433.Google Scholar
  62. Manske DD, Corneliussen PE (1974) Pesticide residues in total diet samples ( VII ). Pestic Monit J 8: 110–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Manske DD, Johnson RD (1975) Pesticide residues in total diet samples ( VIII ). Pestic Monit J 9: 94–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Manske DD, Johnson RD (1977) Pesticide and other chemical residues in total diet samples ( X). Pestic Monit J 10: 134–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Marshall E (1991) USDA’s food survey riddled with flaws. Science 253 (5026): 1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marshall WD, Jarvis WR (1979) Procedures for the removal of field residues of ethylenebis (dithiocarbamate) (EBDC) fungicide and ethylenethiourea ( ETU) from tomatoes prior to processing into juice. J Agric Food Chem 27: 766–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martin RJ, Duggan RE (1968) Pesticide residues in total diet samples ( III ). Pestic Monit J 1: 11–20.Google Scholar
  68. McAuliffe K, Gilbert D, Kistner W, Weir D (1987) How safe is your food? U.S. News and World Report, Nov. 16, pp 70–72.Google Scholar
  69. McCarthy JF (1991) Average residues vs. tolerances: An overview of industry studies. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 182–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. McLeod HA, Smith DC, Bluman N (1980) Pesticide residues in the total diet in Canada, V: 1976 to 1978. J Food Saf 2: 141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Minyard JP, Roberts WE, Cobb WY (1989) State programs for pesticide residues in foods. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 72: 525–533.Google Scholar
  72. Minyard JP, Roberts WE (1991a) FOODCONTAM: A state data resource on toxic chemicals in food. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Minyard JP, Roberts WE (1991b) State findings on pesticide residues in foods— 1988 and 1989. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 74: 438–452.Google Scholar
  74. Moore JA (1987) Statement before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate. Senate Hearing 100–394, Part 1 U.S. Congress, Washington, DC, May 20.Google Scholar
  75. Mott L (1984) Pesticides in Food: What the Public Needs to Know. Natural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  76. Mott L (1986) Pesticide Reregistration: An Evaluation of EPA’s Progress. Natural Resources Defense Council, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  77. Mott L, Snyder K (1987) Pesticide Alert: A Guide to Pesticides in Fruits and Vegetables. Sierra Club, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  78. Moye HA (1991) The Office of Technology Assessment report on pesticide residue methodology for foods. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mukherjee D, Roy BR, Chakraborty J, Ghosh BN (1980) Pesticide residues in human foods in Calcutta. Indian J Med Res 72: 577–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Murakami Y, Matsumoto H, Kuwabara K, Nishimune T, Tanaka R (1988) Survey of diphenyl ether herbicides in dietary foods by the total diet study in Osaka, Japan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 40: 69–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. National Research Council (NRC) (1987) Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox. Nat Acad Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  82. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) (1989) Intolerable Risk: Pesticides in Our Children’s Food. Natural Resources Defense Council, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Office of Technology Assessment (1988) Pesticide Residues in Food: Technologies for Detection. OTA-F-398, U.S. Congress, U.S. Gov Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  84. Okamura D, Melnicoe R, Jackson T, Drefs C, Maddy K, Wells J (1991) Pesticide residues in food crops analyzed by the California Department of Food and Agriculture in 1989. Reviews Environ Contam Toxicol 118: 87–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Opinion Research Corporation (1990) Trends, Consumer Attitudes, and the Supermarket, 1990. Food Marketing Inst, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  86. Pennington JA, Gunderson EL (1987) History of the Food and Drug Administration’s Total Diet Study—1961–1987. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 70: 772–782.Google Scholar
  87. Podrebarac DS (1984) Pesticide, metal, and other chemical residues in adult total diet samples (XIV)—October 1977-September 1978. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 67: 176–185.Google Scholar
  88. Reed DV, Lombardo P, Wessel JR, Burke JA, McMahon B (1987) The FDA pesticides monitoring program. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 70: 591–595.Google Scholar
  89. Seiber JN (1991) New trends in analytical methods for pesticide residues in foods. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 125–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Singh PP, Chawla RP (1988) Insecticide residues in total diet samples in Punjab, India. Sci Total Environ 76: 139–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sisco D (1991) Regulation of pesticides in food: Addressing the Delaney paradox policy statement. In: Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: Aspects of a Changing Structure. U.S. Dept Agriculture, Economic Res Serv, Washington, DC, pp 5–16.Google Scholar
  92. Smith DC (1971) Pesticide residues in the total diet in Canada. Pestic Sci 2: 92–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith DC, Sandi E, Leduc R (1972) Pesticide residues in the total diet in Canada. II. 1970. Pestic Sci 3: 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith DC, Leduc R, Charbonneau (1973) Pesticide residues in the total diet in Canada. III. 1971. Pestic Sci 4: 211–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith DC, Leduc R, Tremblay L (1975) Pesticide residues in the total diet in Canada. IV. 1972 and 1973. Pestic Sci 6: 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Tomerlin JR, Engler R (1991) Estimation of dietary exposure to pesticides using the dietary risk evaluation system. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 192–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Trichilo CL, Schmitt RD (1989) Tolerance setting process in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 72: 536–538.Google Scholar
  98. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) (1983) Food Intakes: Individuals in 48 States, Years 1977–78. Consumer Nutrition Div, Human Nutrition Inform Serv, Hyattsville, MD.Google Scholar
  99. USDA (1988) Nationwide Food Consumption Survey: Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals—Women 19–50 Years and Their Children 1–5 Years, 4 Days. Nutrition Monitoring Div, Human Nutrition Inform Serv, Hyattsville, MD.Google Scholar
  100. Wells JW, Fong WG (1991) State pesticide regulatory programs and the food safety controversy. In: Tweedy BG, Dishburger HJ, Ballantine LG, McCarthy J (eds) Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Am Chem Soc, Washington, DC, pp 313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilkinson CF, Ginevan ME (1989) A Critical Review of the Natural Resources Defense Council’s Report “Intolerable Risk: Pesticides in Our Children’s Food.” RiskFocus, Springfield, VA.Google Scholar
  102. Williams S (1964) Total diet study, pesticide residues in total diet samples. J Assoc Offic Anal Chem 47: 815–821.Google Scholar
  103. Wills JH (1972) The measurement and significance of changes in the Cholinesterase activities of erythrocytes and plasma in man and animals. CRC Crit Rev Toxicol 1: 153–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Winter CK (1992) Pesticide residues and their relevance as safety standards. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl K. Winter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations