Brain Abscess and Related Focal Intracranial Suppuration

  • Richard T. SokolovJr.
  • Richard D. Meyer
Part of the Clinical Topics in Infectious Disease book series (CLIN.TOP.INFECT)

Abstract

Abscesses may form in brain parenchyma as a result either of metastatic spread from infection elsewhere in the body or of contiguous spread from structures in close proximity, such as the paranasal sinuses, ears, and nose. Trauma and surgical procedures may introduce infectious agents to vulnerable cerebral tissue. Since brain abscess is a curable condition, prompt recognition of predisposing factors and knowledge of the varied clinical presentations, as well as of the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, are essential for cure.

Keywords

Ampicillin Vancomycin Chloramphenicol Encephalitis Cephalosporin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Harrison MJG: The clinical presentation of intracranial abscesses. Q J Med 1982; 204: 461–468.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carey ME, Chou SN, French LA: Experience with brain abscesses. J Neurosurg 1972; 36: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McClelland CJ, Craig BF, Crockard HA: Brain abscesses in Northern Ireland: a 30 year community review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1978; 41: 1043–1047.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chun CH, Johnson JD, Hofstetter M, Raff MJ: Brain abscess. A study of 45 consecutive cases. Medicine (Baltimore) 1986; 65: 415–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morgan H, Wood MW: Cerebellar abscesses: a review of seventeen cases. Surg Neurol 1975; 3: 93–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Durack DT: Prevention of central nervous system infections in patients at risk. Am J Med 1984; 76: 231–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garvey G: Current conepts of bacterial infections of the central nervous system. Bacterial meningitis and bacterial brain abscess. J Neurosurg 1983, 59: 735–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karandanis D, Shulman JA: Factors associated with mortality in brain abscess. Arch Intern Med 1975; 135: 1145–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beller AJ, Sahar A, Praiss I: Brain abscess. Review of 89 cases over a period of 30 years. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1973; 36: 757–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Louvois J, Gortvai P, Hurley R: Bacteriology of abscesses of the central nervous system: a multicentre prospective study. Br Med J 1977; 2: 981–984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mathisen GE, Meyer RD, George WL, et al: Brain abscess and cerebritis. Rev Infect Dis 1984; 6 (suppl. 1): S101 - S106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ingham HR, Selkon JB, Roxby CM: Bacteriological study of otogenic cerebral abscesses: chemotherapeu-tic role of metronidazole. Br Med J 1977; 2: 991–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Frederick J, Braude AI: Anaerobic infection of the paranasal sinuses. TV Engl J Med 1974; 290: 135–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heineman HS, Braude AI: Anaerobic infection of the brain. Am J Med 1963; 35: 682–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Norrell H, Howieson J: Gas-containing brain abscesses. Am J Roentgenol Rad Nuclear Med 1970; 109: 273–276.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    De Louvois J: Bacteriological examination of pus from abscesses of the central nervous system. J Clin Pathol 1980; 33: 66–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pollock SS, Pollock TM, Harrison MJG: Infection of the central nervous system by Listeria monocytogenes: a review of 54 adult and juvenile cases. Q J Med 1984; 211: 331–340.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Graham, DR, Band JD: Citrobacter diversus brain abscess and meningitis in neonates. JAMA 1981; 245: 1923–1925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Crocker EF, McLaughlin AF, Morris JG, et al: Technetium brain scanning in the diagnosis and manage ment of cerebral abscess. Am J Med 1974; 56: 192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Whelan MA, Hilal SK: Computed tomography as a guide in the diagnosis and follow-up of brain abscesses. Radiology 1980; 135: 663–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Samson DS, Clark K: A current review of brain abscess. Am J Med 1973; 54: 201–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morgan H, Wood MW, Murphey F: Experience with 88 consecutive cases of brain abscess. J Neurosurg 1973; 38: 698–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fischbein CA, Rosenthal A, Fischer EG, et al: Risk factors for brain abscess in patients with congenital heart disease. Am J Cardiol 1974; 34: 97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gates EM, Kernohan JW, Craig WMcK: Metastatic brain abscess. Medicine 1950; 29: 71–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Heineman HS, Braude AI, Osterholm JL: Intracranial suppurative disease. Early presumptive diagnosis and successful treatment without surgery. JAMA 1971; 218: 1542–1547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang SY: Brain abscess: a review of 400 cases. J Neurosurg 1981; 55: 794–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brewer NS, MacCarty CS, Wellman WE: Brain abscess: a review of recent experience. Ann Intern Med 1975; 82: 571–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kim EE, DeLand FH, Montebello J: Sensitivity of radionuclide brain scan and computed tomography in early detection of viral meningoencephalitis. Radiology 1979; 132: 425–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    New PFJ, Davis KR: The role of CT scanning in diagnosis of infections of the central nervous system, in Remington, Swartz (eds): Current Clinical Topics in Infectious Diseases No. 1. New York, McGraw- Hill, 1980, pp 1–12.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Enzmann DR, Britt RH, Placone RC, et al: The effect of short-term corticosteroid treatment on the CT appearance of experimental brain abscesses. Radiology 1982; 145: 79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wispelwey B, Scheid WM: Brain abscess. Clin Neuropharmacol 1987; 10: 483–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sze G: Infections and inflammatory diseases, in Stark DD, Bradley WG (eds): Magnetic Resonance Imaging. St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Co, 1988, pp 316–343.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Domingue JN, Wilson CB: Pituitary abscesses: report of seven cases and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 1977; 46: 601–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Van Voris LP, Roberts NJ Jr: Central nervous system infections, in Reese RE, Douglas RG Jr. (eds): A Practical Approach to Infectious Diseases. Boston, Little, Brown & Co., 1986, pp 123–143.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Griffith JF, Ch’ien LT: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Diagnostic and treatment considerations. Med Clin N Am 1983; 67: 991–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Young LS, Armstrong D, Blevins A, et al: Nocardia asteroides infection complicating neoplastic disease. Am J Med 1971; 50: 356–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hackman AS, Wilkins TD: Influence of penicillinase production by strains of Bacteroides melaninogenicus and Bacteroides oralis on penicillin therapy of an experimental mixed anaerobic infection in mice. Arch Oral Biol 1976; 21: 385–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ja wetz E, Melnick JL, Adelberg EA: Antimicrobial chemotherapy, in Jawetz E, Melnick JL, Adelberg EA (eds): Review of Medical Microbiology. Norwalk, Conn, Appleton & Lange, 1987, pp 130–159.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    AMA Division of Drugs: Amphenicols. AM A Drug Evaluations. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co, 1983, pp 1643–1650.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rahal JJ, Simberkoff MS: Bactericidal and bacteriostatic action of chloramphenicol against meningeal pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1979; 16: 13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haley EC, Costello GT, Rodeheaver GT, et al: Treatment of experimental brain abscess with penicillin and chloramphenicol. J Infect Dis 1983; 148: 737–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kramer PW, Griffith RS, Campbell RL: Antibiotic penetration of the brain. A comparative study. J Neurosurg 1969; 31: 295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jones RN, Thornsberry C: Cefotaxime: a review of in vitro antimicrobial properties and spectrum of activity. Rev Infect Dis 1982; 4 (suppl): S300 - S312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bartlett JG: Recent developments in the management of anaerobic infections. Rev Infect Dis 1983; 5: 235–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Berk SL, McCabe WR: Meningitis caused by gram-negative bacilli. Ann Intern Med 1980; 93: 253–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Neu HC: The new beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporins. Ann Intern Med 1982; 97: 408–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Scheid WM, Brodeur JP, Gratz JC, et al: Evaluation of aztreonam in experimental bacterial meningitis and cerebritis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1983; 24: 682–688.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Scheid WM, Winn HR: Brain abscess, in Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (eds): Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. New York, Wiley, 1985, pp 585–592.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Black P, Graybill JR, Charache P: Penetration of brain abscess by systemically administered antibiotics. J Neurosurg 1973; 38: 705–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Boom WH, Tuazon CU: Successful treatment of multiple brain abscesses with antibiotics alone. Rev Infect Dis 1985; 7: 189–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Choudhury AR, Taylor JC, Whitaker R: Primary excision of brain abscess. Br Med J 1977; 2: 1119–1121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Holtas S, Tornquist C, Cornqvist S: Diagnostic difficulties in computed tomography of brain abscesses. J Comp Assist Tomogr 1982; 6: 683–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tahmouresie A: Subdural empyema secondary to vet-riculoperitoneal shunt. NY State J Med 1979; 79: 375–376.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Coonrod JD, Dans PE: Subdural empyema. Am J Med 1972; 53: 85–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Luken MG III, Whelan MA: Recent diagnostic expe rience with subdural empyema. J Neurosurg 1980: 52: 764–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Farmer TW, Wise GR: Subdural empyema in infants, children and adults. Neurology 1973; 23: 254–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harter DH, Petersdorf RG: Pyogenic infections of the central nervous system, in Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Petersdorf RG, et al (eds): Principles of Internal Medicine. New York, McGraw-Hill. 1987, pp 1980–1987.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yoshikawa TT, Chow AW, Guze LB: Role of anaerobic bacteria in subdural empyema. Report of four cases and review of 327 cases from the English literature. Am J Med 1975; 58: 99–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Vetrovec GW. Warner JF: Infected subdural hematoma: three case reports involving gram-negative organisms. Am J Med Sci 1975; 269: 113–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Handel SF, Klein WC, Kim YW: Intracranial epidural abscess. Radiology 1974; 111: 117–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Weingarten K, Zimmerman RD, Becker RD, et al: Subdural and epidural empyemas: MR imaging. AJNR 1989; 10: 81–87.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Southwick FS, Richardson EP, Swartz MN: Septic thrombosis of the dural venous sinuses. Medicine (Baltimore) 1986; 65: 82–106.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yarington CT: The orbit in relation to rhinology. Proc Roy Soc Med 1977; 70: 456–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zahller M, Spector RH, Skoglund RR, et al: Cavernous sinus thrombosis. West J Med 1980; 133: 44–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Harter DH: Parameningeal infections, in Wyngaarden JB, Smith LH (eds): Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co, 1988, pp 2181–2187.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rao KCVG, Knipp HC, Wagner EJ: Computed tomographic findings in cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis. Radiology 1981; 140: 391–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Anonymous: Infections of the dural venous sinuses (editorial). Lancet 1987; 1: 201–202.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gettelfinger DM, Kokmen E: Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Arch Neurol 1988; 34: 2–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard T. SokolovJr.
  • Richard D. Meyer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations