Advertisement

Pedophilia pp 378-393 | Cite as

Sociosexual Behavior Used for Tension Regulation in All Age and Sex Combinations Among Bonobos

  • Frans B. M. de Waal

Abstract

In biology, sexual behavior generally is investigated from the perspective of reproduction. Although the nonreproductive use of the same behavior patterns is common to many species, this use is considered of secondary importance. From an evolutionary perspective, the primary function of sexual behavior, that is, the function most directly relevant for natural selection, is its capacity of producing a zygote. But what if fertile and infertile partner combinations were to engage in sexual behavior with equal intensity and equal frequency? In such a case, it would seem that the reproductive function had decreased in relative importance. This author encountered such a situation during his studies of bonobos (Pan paniscus), and it is of particular interest because this little-known ape species, together with the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes), is the closest relative of humans.

Keywords

Sexual Behavior Adolescent Male Pygmy Chimpanzee Macaca Arctoides Partner Combination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Badrian, A., and Badrian, N. Social organization of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire. In R. Susman (Ed.), The pygmy chimpanzee. New York: Plenum Press, 1984, pp. 325–346.Google Scholar
  2. Badrian, N., and Malenky, R. Feeding ecology of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire. In R. Susman (Ed.), The pygmy chimpanzee. New York: Plenum Press, 1984, pp. 275–299.Google Scholar
  3. Dahl, J. The external genitalia of female pygmy chimpanzees. The Anatomical Record, 1985, 211, 24–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dahl, J. Cyclic perineal swelling during the intermenstrual intervals of captive female pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus). Journal of Human Evolution, 1986, 15, 369–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dahl, J. Sexual initiation in a captive group of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus). Primate Report, 1987, 16, 43–53.Google Scholar
  6. Goldfoot, D.A., Westerborg-van Loon, H., Groeneveld, W., and Slob, A.K. Behavioral and physiological evidence of sexual climax in the female stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides). Science, 1980, 208, 1477–1479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goodall, J. The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  8. Hübsch, I. Einiges zum Verhalten der Zwergschimpansen (Pan paniscus) und der Schimpanzen (Pan troglodytes) im Frankfurter Zoo. Zoologische Garten, 1970, 38, 107–132.Google Scholar
  9. Jordan, C. Das Verhalten Zoolebender Zwergschimpansen. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1977, Goethe University, Frankfurt.Google Scholar
  10. Kano, T. Social behavior of wild pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba: A preliminary report. Journal of Human Evolution, 1980, 9, 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kano, T., and Mulavwa, M. Feeding ecology of the pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba. In R. Susman (Ed.), The pygmy chimpanzee. New York: Plenum Press, 1984, pp. 233–274.Google Scholar
  12. Kirchshofer, R. Beobachtungen bei der Geburt eines Zwergschimpansen (Pan paniscus Schwarz 1929) und einige Bemerkungen zum Paarungsverhalten.Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 1962, 19, 597–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuroda, S. Social behavior of the pygmy chimpanzees. Primates, 1980, 21, 181–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kuroda, S. Interaction over food among pygmy chimpanzees. In R. Susman (Ed.), The pygmy chimpanzee. New York: Plenum Press, 1984, pp. 301–324.Google Scholar
  15. McGinnis, P. Patterns of sexual behavior in a community of free-living chimpanzees. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1973, Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  16. Mori, A. An ethological study of pygmy chimpanzees in Wamba, Zaire: A comparison with chimpanzees. Primates, 1984, 25, 255–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nieuwenhuijsen, K. Geslachtshormonen en gedrag bij de beermakaak 0Macaca arctoides). Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 1985, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  18. Rempe, U. Einige Beobachtungen an Bonobos (Pan paniscus, Schwarz 1929). Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 1961, 165, 81–87.Google Scholar
  19. Savage, S., and Bakeman, R. Sexual morphology and behavior in Pan paniscus. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Primatology. New York: Academic Press, 1978, pp. 613–616.Google Scholar
  20. Savage-Rumbaugh, S., and Wilkerson, B. Socio-sexual behavior in Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes: A comparative study.Journal of Human Evolution, 1978, 7, 327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sibley, C., and Ahlquist, J. The phytogeny of the Hominoid primates, as indicated by DNA-DNA hybridization. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 1984, 20, 2–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Thompson-Handler, N., Malenky, R., and Badrian, N. Sexual behavior of Pan paniscus under natural conditions in the Lomako Forest, Equateur, Zaire. In R. Susman (Ed.), The pygmy chimpanzee. New York: Plenum Press, 1984, pp. 347–368.Google Scholar
  23. Tratz, E., and Heck, H. Der afrikanische Anthropoide ‘Bonobo,’ eine neue Menschenaffengattung. Saugetierkundige Mitteilungen, 1954, 2, 97–101.Google Scholar
  24. de Waal, F. Chimpanzee politics. London: Jonathan Cape, 1982.Google Scholar
  25. de Waal, F. Tension regulation and nonreproductive functions of sex in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). National Geographie Research, 1987, 3, 318–335.Google Scholar
  26. de Waal, F. The communicative repertoire of captive bonobos (Pan paniscus), compared to that of chimpanzees. Behaviour, 1988, 106, 183–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Waal, F., and van Hooff, J. Side-directed communication and agonistic interactions in chimpanzees. Behaviour, 1981, 77, 164–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. de Waal, F., and Ren, R. Comparison of the reconciliation behavior of stumptail and rhesus macaques.Ethology, 1988, 78, 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. de Waal, F., and van Roosmalen, A. Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 1979, 5, 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. van der Weel, M. Sexuele interacties en relaties tussen chimpansees. Unpublished research report, 1978, University of Utrecht.Google Scholar
  31. Wrangham, R. Ecology and social relationships in two species of chimpanzee. In D. Rubenstein and R. Wrangham (Eds.), Ecological aspects of social evolution: Birds and mammals. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986, pp. 352–378.Google Scholar
  32. Yamagiwa, J. Intra- and inter-group interactions in an all-male group of Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Primates, 1987, 28, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frans B. M. de Waal
    • 1
  1. 1.Wisconsin Regional Primate Research CenterUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations