Advertisement

Competence and Excuse-Making as Self-Presentational Strategies

Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Social Psychology book series (SSSOC)

Abstract

Self-presentation is a communicative act in which people convey a particular image of themselves to others, verbally or nonverbally. Research on self-presentation generally manipulates the public or private nature of responses such that a public response is one that people anticipate presenting to others, and a private response is one that people do not anticipate presenting to anyone connected with the experiment. If the responses differ, it is presumed that public responses are affected by self-presentational concerns (Baumeister, 1982). Although there are other methodologies employed in research on self-presentation (see Tetlock & Manstead, 1985), this is the methodology employed in the research presented here.

Keywords

Social Comparison Task Difficulty Public Image Experimental Social Psychology Eastern Psychological Association 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arkin, R.M., Appelman, A.J., & Burger, J.M. (1980). Social anxiety, self-presentation, and the self-serving bias in causal attribution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 23–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arrowood, A.J., & Friend, R. (1969). Other factors determining the choice of a comparison other. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumeister, R.F. (1982). A self-presentational view of social phenomena. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradley, G. (1978). Self-serving biases in the attribution process: A reexamination of the fact or fiction question. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 56–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheek, J.M., & Hogan, R. (1983). Self-concepts, self-presentations, and moral judgments. In J. Suls & A.G. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 2, pp. 249–273). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Eagly, A.H., & Whitehead, G.I., III. (1972). Effect of choice on receptivity to favorable and unfavorable evaluations of oneself. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22, 223–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7,117–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fiske, S.T. (1980). Attention and weight in person perception: The impact of negative and extreme behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 889–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Frieze, I.H., & Bar-Tal, D. (1976, April). Developmental trends in information utilization for making causal attributions. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  10. Gould, R.J., & Slone, C.G. (1982). The “feminine modesty” effect: A self-presentational interpretation of sex differences in causal attribution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 477–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenberg, J., Pyszcznski, T., & Solomon, S. (1982). The self-serving attributional bias: Beyond self-presentation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 56–67’.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenwald, A.G. (1982). Ego task analysis: An integration of research on ego-involvement and self-awareness. In A.H. Hastorf & A.M. Isen (Eds.), Cognitive social psychology (pp. 109–147). New York: Elsevier North Holland.Google Scholar
  13. Gruder, C.L., Korth, B., Dichtel, M., & Glos, B. (1975). Uncertainty and social comparison. Journal of Research in Personality, 9, 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones, E.E., & Pittman, T.S. (1982). Toward a general theory of strategic self-presentation. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol 1, pp. 231–262). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Lenney, E. (1977). Women’s self-confidence in achievement settings. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Miller, D.T. (1976). Ego involvement and attributions for success and failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 901–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Miller, D.T., & Ross, M. (1975). Self-serving biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fiction? Psychological Bulletin, 82, 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Riess, M., Rosenfield, P., Melburg, V., & Tedeschi, J.T. (1981). Self-serving attributions: Biased private perceptions and distorted public descriptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 224–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schlenker, B.R. (1980). Impression management: The self-concept, social identity, and interpersonal relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  20. Smith, S.H., & Whitehead, G.I., III. (1984, April). The effect of subject’s race on judgments of causality for own success and failure. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.Google Scholar
  21. Smith, S.H., & Whitehead, G.I., III. (1986, April). The public and private use of projection. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, S.H., & Whitehead, G.I., III. (1986). The effect of subject’s gender on judgments of similarity and choice of a comparison other. Sex Roles, 14, 513–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Snyder, C.R., & Clair, M.S. (1977). Does insecurity breed acceptance? Effects of trait and situational insecurity on acceptance of positive and negative diagnostic feedback. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 843–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Snyder, C.R., Ford, C.E., & Hunt, H.A. (1985, August). Excuse-making: A look at sex differences. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  25. Snyder, C.R., Higgins, R.L., & Stucky, R.J. (1983). Excuses: Masquerades in search of grace. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  26. Snyder, M.L., Stephan, W.G., & Rosenfield, D. (1978). Attributional egotism. In J.H. Harvey, W. Ickes, & R.F. Kidd (Eds.), New directions in attribution research (Vol. 2, pp. 91–117). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  27. Steiner, I.D. (1968). Reaction to adverse and favorable evaluations of one’s self. Journal of Personality, 36, 553–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Taylor, S.E. (1983). Adjustment to threatening events: A theory of cognitive adaptation. American Psychologist, 38, 1161–1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tetlock, RE. (1980). Explaining teacher explanations for pupil performance: A test of the self-presentation position. Social Psychology Quarterly, 43, 283–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tetlock, P.E., & Levi, A. (1982). Attribution bias: On the inconclusiveness of the cognition-motivation debate. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 68–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tetlock, P.E., & Manstead, A.S.R. (1985). Impression management versus intrapsychic explanations in social psychology: A useful dichotomy? Psychological Review, 92, 59–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Weary, G., & Arkin, R.M. (1981). Attributional self-presentation. In J.H. Harvey, W Ickes, & R.F. Kidd (Eds.), New directions in attribution research (Vol. 3, pp. 225–246). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  33. Weary, G., Harvey, J.H., Schwieger, P., Olson, C.T., Perloff, R., & Pritchard, S. (1982). Self-serving presentation of the modification of the self-serving attributional biases. Social Cognition, 1, 140–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wheeler, L. (1966). Motivation as a determinant of upward comparison. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2 (Suppl. 1), 27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wheeler, L., Koestner, R., & Driver, R.E. (1982). Related attributes in the choice of a comparison other: It’s there, but it isn’t all there is. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 489–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wheeler, L., Shaver, K.G., Jones, R.W, Goethals, G.R., Cooper, J., Robinson, J.E., Gruder, C.L., & Butzine, KW. (1969). Factors determining choice of a comparison other. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 219–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Whitehead, G.I., III, & Smith, S.H. (1984, April). Self-presentation and the self-serving attri bution bias. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  38. Whitehead, G.I., III, & Smith, S.H. (1985, March). Judgments of similarity as a self-presentational strategy. Paper presented at the meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  39. Wills, T.A. (1981). Downward comparison principles in social psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 245–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wortman, C.B., Costanzo, P.B., & Witt, T.R. (1973). Effect of anticipated performance on the attribution of causality to self and others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27,372–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations