• Robert J. Beyers
  • Howard T. Odum
Part of the Springer Advanced Texts in Life Sciences book series (SATLIFE)


Small, still aquatic microcosms such as aquaria, small tanks, and flasks, have a high ratio of wall and bottom surface to volume and small exchanges with the outside (Fraleigh and Dibert 1980). The most relevant outdoor ecosystems are small, shallow aquatic ecosystems with little plankton and the littoral zones of larger bodies. Aquaria were the microcosm type first set up by Robert Warrington (Chapter 8). If one counts the aquaria in schoolrooms around the world and in the homes of hobbyists, probably millions of these microcosms have been set up, but relatively few have been seriously studied.


Water Hyacinth Surface Microlayer Benthic System Aquatic Microcosm Nighttime Respiration 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Beyers
    • 1
  • Howard T. Odum
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of South AlabamaMobileUSA
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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