Small, still aquatic microcosms such as aquaria, small tanks, and flasks, have a high ratio of wall and bottom surface to volume and small exchanges with the outside (Fraleigh and Dibert 1980). The most relevant outdoor ecosystems are small, shallow aquatic ecosystems with little plankton and the littoral zones of larger bodies. Aquaria were the microcosm type first set up by Robert Warrington (Chapter 8). If one counts the aquaria in schoolrooms around the world and in the homes of hobbyists, probably millions of these microcosms have been set up, but relatively few have been seriously studied.
KeywordsWater Hyacinth Surface Microlayer Benthic System Aquatic Microcosm Nighttime Respiration
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