Reefs and Benthic Microcosms

  • Robert J. Beyers
  • Howard T. Odum
Part of the Springer Advanced Texts in Life Sciences book series (SATLIFE)


The ecosystems of underwater surfaces are important, often conspicuous, intensively metabolic, and some are the most organized and diverse in the biosphere. Water motions relative to the fixed surface help to maintain the attached organisms and high rates of metabolism. We have already considered stream microcosms where the water flow is unidirectional. This chapter concerns microcosms which mimic the reefs, bottom communities, and encrusting ecosystems in lakes and seas where water motions are multidirectional.


Coral Reef Artificial Reef Oyster Reef Reef Structure Diphenyl Phosphate 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Beyers
    • 1
  • Howard T. Odum
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of South AlabamaMobileUSA
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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