Ponds and Pools

  • Robert J. Beyers
  • Howard T. Odum
Part of the Springer Advanced Texts in Life Sciences book series (SATLIFE)


Ponds are small bodies of water, usually much wider than they are deep, and usually containing self-organizing ecosystems. Ponds have been called microcosms by many writers in literature, such as Thoreau in his description of Walden pond in Massachusetts. Forbes (1887) and Hutchinson (1964) called ponds microcosms in the scientific sense of being a miniature demonstration of the processes occurring on a larger scale in lakes and oceans. In our terminology, most ponds are actually mesocosms, being larger than the small experimental laboratory microcosms.


Leaf Litter Domestic Sewage Vernal Pool Oyster Reef Experimental Pond 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Beyers
    • 1
  • Howard T. Odum
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of South AlabamaMobileUSA
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Engineering SciencesUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

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