Flowing waters in streams, tidal channels, and underground channels develop intense concentrations of life which make use of the physical stirring energy and draw resources from the moving waters. The living and nonliving components of the climax ecosystem are either continually renewed by the inflow or have means for staying in position. Flowing waters are dominated by eddies and currents, and have a high rate of water turnover. Lotic environments, as they are sometimes called, often have more high-quality energy available than standing waters. Often a flowing ecosystem has a current-dependent reef or encrusting surface subsystem (Chapter 14). Where light is available, characteristic mats of algal cells and associated microzoa develop. These are called periphyton or aufwuchs.
KeywordsBiomass Toxicity Chlorophyll Mercury Manifold
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