Are Latent Thought Disorders the Core of Negative Schizophrenia?

  • Winfried Barnett
  • Christoph Mundt

Abstract

Since its inception as a diagnostic entity, attempts have been made to divide schizophrenia into homogeneous subgroups. Kraepelin (1899) already distinguished more florid symptoms from those that were marked by losses or deficits; the latter were responsible for the term “dementia praecox”. Bleuler (1911) is well known and influential in Anglo-American psychiatry and is often viewed as a forefather of the distinction between positive and negative schizophrenia. For example, Pfohl and Andreasen (1986), Crow (1982), and Sommers (1985) see present-day negative symptoms as a reduced version of Bleuler’s fundamental or basic symptoms (disturbances of association and affect, ambivalence, and autism).

Keywords

Depression Dementia Schizophrenia Coherence Sorting 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abels D: Der Konzentrations-Verlaufs-Test K-V-T (the course-of-concentration-test, 2nd ed). Berlin, Springer, 1961Google Scholar
  2. Allen HA: Dichotic monitoring and focussed versus divided attention in schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 21: 205–212, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised (DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1987Google Scholar
  4. Anath J, Chadirian A: Drug induced mood disorder. International Pharmacopsychiatry 15: 58–73, 1980Google Scholar
  5. Andreasen NC: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: definition and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry 39: 784–788, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Andreasen NC: Positive vs. negative schizophrenia: a critical evaluation. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 380–389, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Andreasen NC Akiskal HS: The specificity of Bleulerian and Schneiderian symptoms: a critical re-evaluation. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 6: 41–54, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Andreasen NC, Flaum M: Schizophrenia: the characteristic symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 17: 27–49, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Andreasen NC, Flaum M, Swayze VW, Tyrrell G, Arndt S: Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 47: 615–621, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Andreasen NC, Olsen SA: Negative vs. positive schizophrenia: definition and validation. Archives of General Psychiatry 39: 789–794, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Andreasen NC, Olsen SA, Dennert JW, Smith JW: Ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: Relationship to positive and negative symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry 139: 297–302, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ayd FJ: The depot fluphenazines: a reappraisal after 10 years’ clinical experience. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 491–500, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Methodik and Dokumentation in der Psychiatrie AMDP: Das AMDP-System: Manual zur Dokumentation psychiatrischer Befunde (The AMDP-System: Manual for the Assessment and Documentation of Psychopathology, 4th ed.). Berlin, Springer, 1981Google Scholar
  14. Asaranow RF, MacCrimmon DJ: Residual performance deficit in clinically remitted schizophrenics: a marker of schizophrenia? Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87: 597–608, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Asaranow RF, MacCrimmon DJ: Span of apprehension deficits during postpsychotic stages of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 38: 1006–1011, 1981Google Scholar
  16. Asaranow RF, MacCrimmon DJ: Attention/information processing, neuropsychological functioning, and thought disorder during the acute and partial recovery phases of schizophrenia: A longitudinal study. Psychiatry Research 7: 309–319, 1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Beck AT: Depression Inventory. Philadelphia, Center for Cognitive Therapy, 1978Google Scholar
  18. Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emery G: Kognitive Therapie der Depression. München, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1981Google Scholar
  19. Bilder RM, Murkherjee S, Rieder, RO, Pandurangi, AK: Symptomatic and neuropsychological components of defect states. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 409–417, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bleuler E: Dementia praecox oder die Gruppe der Schizophrenien (Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias). Leipzig, Deuticke, 1911Google Scholar
  21. Breier A, Wolkowitz OM, Doran AR, Roy A, Boronow J, Hommer D, Pickar D: Neuroleptic responsivity of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 144: 1549–1555, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Carpenter WT, Conley RR: Treatment approaches to negative symptoms. In JF Greden, R Tandon (eds): Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms: Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications (pp. 205–214). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1991Google Scholar
  23. Carpenter WT, Heinrichs DW, Alphs LD: Treatment of negative symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 37–49, 1985Google Scholar
  24. Chaturvedi SK, Prasad Rao G., Mathai JP: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia and depression. Indian Journal of Psychiatry 27: 237–241, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ciompi L: Ist die chronische Schizophrenie ein Artefakt? Argumente und Gegenargumente (Is chronic schizophrenia an artefact? Arguments and counter-arguments). Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie 48: 237–248, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cornblatt BA, Lenzenweger MF, Dworkin, RH, Erlenmeyer-Kimling L: Positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms, attention, and information processing. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 397–407, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Crow TJ: Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: more than one disease process? British Medical Journal 280: 1–9, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Crow TJ: The biology of schizophrenia. Experientia 38: 1275–1282Google Scholar
  29. Crow TJ, Cross AJ, Johnstone ECD, Owen F: Two syndromes in schizophrenia and their pathogenesis. In: Henn FA, Nasrallah HA (eds.): Schizophrenia as a Brain Disease, pp. 196–234. New York, Oxford University Press, 1982Google Scholar
  30. Dixon WJ: BMDP Statistical Software. Berkley, University of California Press, 1985Google Scholar
  31. Endicott J, Spitzer RL: A diagnostic interview: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 35: 837–844, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Goffmann E: Asylums. New York, Anchor Books, 1961Google Scholar
  33. Goetz KL, van Kammen DP: Computerized axial tomography scans and subtypes of schizophrenia: a review of the literature. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 174: 208–213Google Scholar
  34. Goldberg SC: Negative and deficit symptoms in schizophrenia do respond to neuroleptics. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 453–456, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Green M, Walker E: Attentional performance in positive and negative schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 174: 208–213, 1986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Green M, Walker E: Neuropsychological performance and positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 94: 368–377, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Green M, Walker E: Susceptibility to backward masking in schizophrenics with positive and negative symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry 141: 1273–1275, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gross G, Huber G, Klosterkötter J, Linz M: Bonner Skala für die Beurteilung von Basissymptomen BSABS (The Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms). Berlin, Springer, 1987Google Scholar
  39. Gruhle HW: Die Psychologie der Dementia praecox (The psychology of dementia praecox). Zentralblatt für Neurologie 78: 454–471, 1922Google Scholar
  40. Gruhle HW: Psychologie der Schizophrenie (Psychology of Schizophrenia). In: Berze J, Gruhle HW (eds): Psychologie der Schizophrenie (Psychology of Schizophrenia), pp. 73–168. Berlin, Springer, 1929Google Scholar
  41. Hamilton M: A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 23: 56–62, 1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harvey PD, Earle-Boyer EA, Levinson JC: Cognitive deficits and thought disorder: a retest study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 14: 57–65, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harvey PC, Serper MR: Linguistic and cognitive failures in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 178: 487–493, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Helwig J: Einführung in das SAS. transl. by G. Frenzel. Cary, North Carolina: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
  45. Hemsley DR: Information processing and schizophrenia. In: Straube ER, Hahlweg K (eds): Schizophrenia. Concepts, Vulnerability, and Intervention, pp. 59–76. Springer, Berlin, 1990Google Scholar
  46. Hogarty GE, Muntzer MR: Pharmacogenic depression among schizophrenic outpatients: a failure to substantiate. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 4: 17–24, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huber G, Gross G, Schüttler R: Schizophrenie. Eine verlaufs-und sozialpsychiatrische Langzeitstudie (Schizophrenia. A long-term study of course and social psychiatric effects). Berlin, Springer, 1979Google Scholar
  48. Janzarik W: Dynamische Grundkonstellationen in endogenen Psychosen (Dynamic basic constellations of endogenous psychoses). Berlin, Springer, 1959Google Scholar
  49. Janzarik W: Schizophrene Verläufe. Eine strukturdynamische Interpretation (Schizophrenic courses. A structural-dynamic interpretation). Berlin, Springer, 1968Google Scholar
  50. Johnson DAW (1981). Studies of depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: I. The prevalence of depression and its possible causes. British Journal of Psychiatry 139: 89–93, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnson J: Depressive changes after fluphenazine treatment. British Medical Journal 3: 718, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kane J, Honigfeld G, Singer J, Meltzer H, & the Clozapin Collaborative Study Group (1988). Clozapine for the treatment-resistent schizophrenic. Archives of General Psychiatry 45: 789–796, 1988Google Scholar
  53. Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, Camey MWP, Price JS: Mechanisms of the antipsychotic effect in the treatment of acute schizophrenia. Lancet I: 848–851, 1978Google Scholar
  54. Kay SR: Longitudinal course of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. In: Greden JF, Tandon R (eds): Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms: Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications, pp. 21–40. Washington DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1991Google Scholar
  55. Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13: 152–160, 1987Google Scholar
  56. Kayton L, Beck J, Koh S: Postpsychotic state, convalescent environment, and therapeutic relationship in schizophrenic outcome. American Journal of Psychiatry 133: 1269–1274, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kendell RE: The Role of Diagnosis in Psychiatry. Osney Mead, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1975Google Scholar
  58. Kick AH: Psychopathologie and Verlauf der postakuten Schizophrenie (Psychopathology and Course of Postacute Schizophrenia). Berlin, Springer, 1991Google Scholar
  59. Kitamura T, Suga R: Depressive and negative symptoms in major psychiatric disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry 32: 88–94, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Klosterkötter J: Basissymptome and Endphänomene der Schizophrenie (Basic symptoms and final phenomena of schizophrenia). Berlin, Springer, 1988Google Scholar
  61. Knight RA, Elliot D, Freedman, E: Short term visual memory in schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 94: 427–443, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Knight RA, Elliot D, Roff DJ, Watson CG: Concurrent and predictive validity of components of disordered thinking. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12: 427–446, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Knights A, Hirsch SR: “Revealed” depression and drug treatment for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 38: 806–811, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kraepelin E: Psychiatrie, 6th ed., Leipzig, Barth, 1899Google Scholar
  65. Kulhara P, Chadda R: A study of negative symptoms in schizophrenia and depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry 28: 229–235, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewine RJJ, Fogg L, Meltzer HY: Assessment of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 9: 368–376, 1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Liddle PF, Morris DL: Schizophrenic syndromes and frontal lobe performance. British Journal of Psychiatry 158: 340–345, 1991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Marjot DH: Depression following fluphenazine treatment. British Medical Journal 3: 780, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Moller HJ, von Zerssen D: Depressive states occurring during the neuroleptic treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 8: 109–117, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Mundt Ch, Fiedler P, Pracht B, Rettich R: (1985). InSka (Intentionalitätsskala)—ein neues psychometrisches Instrument zur quantitativen Erfassung der schizophrenen Residualsymptomatik (InSka—a new questionnaire for the quantitative registration of schizophrenic residual symptomatology). Nervenarzt 56: 146–149, 1985Google Scholar
  71. Mundt Ch, Kasper S: Zur Schizophreniespezifität von negativen and Basissymptomen (specifity of negative and basic symptoms in schizophrenia). Nervenarzt 58: 489–495, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mundt Ch, Kasper S, Huerkamp M: The diagnostic specificity of negative symptoms and their psychopathological context. British Journal of Psychiatry 155 (Suppl 7): 32–36, 1989Google Scholar
  73. Nestadt G, McHugh PR: The frequency of and specifity of some “negative” symptoms. In: Huber G (ed): Basisstadien endogener Psychosen and das Borderline-Problem, pp. 183–193. Stuttgart, Schattauer, 1985Google Scholar
  74. Nuechterlein KH, Edell WS, Norris M, Dawson ME: Attentional vulnerability indicators, thought disorder, and negative symptoms. Schizophrenia Bulletin 12: 408–426, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Nuechterlein KH, Zaucha KM:Processing abnormalities in patients and high-risk children. In: Straube ER, Hahlweg K (eds): Schizophrenia. Concepts, Vulnerability, and Intervention, pp. 77–96. Springer, Berlin, 1990Google Scholar
  76. Owens DGC, Johnstone EC: The disabilities of chronic schizophrenia—their nature and the factors contributing to their development. British Journal of Psychiatry 136: 384–395, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pfohl B, Andreasen N: Schizophrenia: diagnosis and classification. In: Hales FA (ed): Psychiatry update, vol. 5, pp. 38–51. Washington DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1986Google Scholar
  78. Pfohl B, Winokur G: The micropsychopathology of hebephrenic/catatonic schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 171: 296–300, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Pfohl B, Winokur G: The evaluation of symptoms in institutionalized hebephrenic/catatonic schizophrenics. British Journal of Psychiatry 141: 567–572, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Place J, Gilmore GC: Perceptual organization in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 89: 409–418, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Plananski K, Johnston R: Depressive syndrome in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 57: 207–218, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pogue-Geile MF, Harrow M: Negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia and depression: a follow up. Schizophrenia Bulletin 10: 371–387, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. van Putten T, May PRA: “Akinetic depression” in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 35: 1101–1107, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rifkin A, Quitkin F, Klein SF: Akinesia, a poorly recognized drug-induced extrapyramidal behaviour disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 32: 672–674, 1975Google Scholar
  85. Rosen WG, Mohs RC, Johns CA, Small NS, Kendler KS, Horvath TB, Davis KL: Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 13: 277–284, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rosvold HE, Mirsky A, Sarason I, Bransome ED, Beck LH: A continuous performance test of brain damage. Journal of Consulting Psychology 20: 343–350, 1956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Salzinger K, Portnoy S, Feldmann RS: Communicability deficit in schizophrenics resulting from a more general deficit. In: Schwartz S (ed): Language and Cognition in Schizophrenia, pp. 35–53. Hillsdale, Erlbaum, 1978Google Scholar
  88. Salzinger K, Portnoy S, Feldmann RS: Verbal behavior of schizophrenics and normal subjects. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 105: 845–860, 1964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sass H: The historical evolution of the concept of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 155 (Suppl 7): 26–31, 1989Google Scholar
  90. Schneider K: Psychischer Befund and psychiatrische Diagnose (Mental state and psychiatric diagnosis). Leipzig, Thieme, 1939Google Scholar
  91. Segal M, Ropschitz DH: Depressive changes after fluphenazine treatment. British Medical Journal 4: 169, 1969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Shanfield S, Tucker GJ, Harrow M, Detre T: The schizophrenic patient and depressive symptomatology. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 151: 203–210, 1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Silverstein ML, Arzt, AT: Neuropsychological dysfunction in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 173: 341–346, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Siris SG, Rifkin A, Reardon GT, Endicott J, Pereira DH, Hayes R, Casey E: Course-related depressive syndromes in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 141: 1254–1257, 1983Google Scholar
  95. Sommers E: “Negative symptoms”: conceptual and methodological problems. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 364–378, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Spring B, Lemon M, Fergeson P: Vulnerabilities to schizophrenia: information-processing markers, In: Straube ER, Hahlweg K (eds): Schizophrenia. Concepts, Vulnerability, and Intervention, pp. 97–114. Berlin, Springer, 1990Google Scholar
  97. Strauss JS, Carpenter WT, Bartko JJ: The diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia, II: speculations upon the process that underlie schizophrenic symptoms and signs. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 61–76, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Strian F, Heger R, Klicpera C: The time structure of depressive mood in schizophrenic patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 65: 66–73, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Süllwold L, Huber G: Schizophrene Basisstörungen (Basic disturbances in schizophrenia). Berlin, Springer, 1986Google Scholar
  100. Tandon R, Goldman RS, Goodson J, Greden JF: Mutability and relationship between positive and negative symptoms during neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 27: 1323–1326, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tandon R, Greden JF: Conclusion: is integration possible? In: Greden JF, Tandon R (eds): Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms: Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications, pp. 233–239. Washington DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1991Google Scholar
  102. Taylor WL: Cloze procedure: a new tool for measuring readability. Journalism Quarterly 30: 415–433, 1953Google Scholar
  103. Wagner M: Experimentelle Verfahren zur Aufmerksamkeitsprüfung (EVA): CPT and SAT (Experimental measures of attention: CPT and SAT). München, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik, 1989Google Scholar
  104. Weiner RU, Opler LA, Kay SR, Merriam AE, Papouchis M: Visual information processing in positive, mixed, and negative schizophrenic syndromes. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 178: 616–626, 1990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wing JK: A standard form of psychiatric Present-State Examination and a method for standardizing the classification of symptoms. In: Hare EH, Wing JK (eds): Psychiatric Epidemiology: An International Symposium, pp. 93–108. London, Oxford University Press, 1970Google Scholar
  106. Wing JK: Schizophrenia: Towards a New Synthesis. London, Academic Press, 1978Google Scholar
  107. Wing JK, Brown GW: Institutionalization and Schizophrenia. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wohlberg GW, Kornetsky C: Sustained attention in remitted schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry 28: 533–537, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag, New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Winfried Barnett
  • Christoph Mundt

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations