Growth Factors as Regulators of Mammalian Preimplantation Embryo Development

  • Bernd Fischer
Part of the Serono Symposia, USA Norwell, Massachusetts book series (SERONOSYMP)

Abstract

Low-molecular weight peptides with a wide range of different actions are collectively called growth factors (GF). Their biological action is multifunctional (1, 2). Based on structural homology and shared receptor binding activity, GF are grouped into families, such as the epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF), transforming growth factor ß (TGFß), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) families (3). Binding of a GF to its cell surface receptor initiates, via activation of second messengers, cellular responses related either to cell proliferation (growth) or to cell differentiation. GF mainly act locally by paracrine or autocrine mechanisms. Oncogenes can be part of the intracellular signal transduction (reviewed in 4, 5). The exact mechanisms and substances involved in the signaling process and function, however, are still unknown.

Keywords

Migration Estrogen Tyrosine Methionine Peri 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sporn MB, Roberts AB. Peptide growth factors are multifunctional. Nature (London) 1988;332:217–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sporn MB, Roberts AB. The multifunctional nature of peptide growth factors. In: Sporn MB, Roberts AB, eds. Peptide growth factors and their receptors, I. Handbook of experimental pharmacology; vol 95/I. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990:3–15.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mercola M, Stiles CD. Growth factor superfamilies and mammalian embryogenesis. Development 1988;102:451–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Studzinski GP. Oncogenes, growth, and the cell cycle: an overview. Cell Tissue Kinet 1989;22:405–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Leutz A, Graf T. Relationships between oncogenes and growth control. In: Sporn MB, Roberts AB, eds. Peptide growth factors and their receptors, II. Handbook of experimental pharmacology; vol 95/II. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990:655–703.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Whitman M, Melton DA. Growth factors in early embryogenesis. Annu Rev Cell Biol 1989;5:93–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heath JK, Smith AG. Growth factors in embryogenesis. Br Med Bull 1989; 2:319–36.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nilsen-Hamilton M. Growth factor signaling in early mammalian development. In: Rosenblum IY, Heyner S, eds. Growth factors in mammalian development. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1989:135–65.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rappolee DA, Brenner CA, Schultz R, Mark D, Werb Z. Developmental expression of PDGF, TGF-α, and TGF-ß genes in preimplantation mouse embryos. Science 1988;241:1823–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rappolee DA, Sturm KS, Schultz GA, Pederson RA, Werb Z. The expression of growth factor ligands and receptors in preimplantation mouse embryos. In: Heyner S, Wiley LM, eds. Early embryo development and paracrine relationships. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1990:11–25.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simmen FA, Simmen RCM. Peptide growth factors and proto-oncogenes in mammalian conceptus development. Biol Reprod 1991;44:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harvey MB, Kaye PL. Insulin stimulates protein synthesis in compacted mouse embryos. Endocrinology 1988;122:1182–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heyner S, Rao LV, Jarett L, Smith RM. Preimplantation mouse embryos internalize maternal insulin via receptor-mediated endocytosis: pattern of uptake and functional correlations. Dev Biol 1989;134:48–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heyner S, Mattson BA, Smith RM, Rosenblum IY. Insulin and insulin-like growth factors in mammalian development. In: Rosenblum IY, Heyner S, eds. Growth factors in mammalian development. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1989:91–112.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rao LV, Farber M, Smith RM, Heyner S. The role of insulin in preimplantation mouse development. In: Heyner S, Wiley LM, eds. Early embryo development and paracrine relationships. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1990:109–24.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wood SA, Kaye PL. Effects of epidermal growth factor on preimplantation mouse embryos. J Reprod Fertil 1989;85:575–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Slager HG, Lawson KA, van den Eijnden-van Raaij AJM, de Laat SW, Mummery CL. Differential localization of TGF-ß2 in mouse preimplantation and early postimplantation development. Dev Biol 1991;145:205–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Paria BC, Dey SK. Preimplantation embryo development in vitro: cooperative interactions among embryos and role of growth factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87:4756–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harvey MB, Kaye PL. Insulin increases the cell number of the inner cell mass and stimulates morphological development of mouse blastocysts in vitro. Development 1990;110:963–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rao LV, Wikarczuk ML, Heyner S. Functional roles of insulin and insulinlike growth factors in preimplantation mouse embryo development. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 1990;26:1043–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Werb Z. Expression of EGF and TGF-a genes in early mammalian development. Mol Reprod Dev 1990;27:10–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gardner HG, Kaye PL. Insulin increases cell numbers and morphological development in mouse pre-implantation embryos in vitro. Reprod Fertil Dev 1991;3:79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dardik A, Schultz RM. Blastocoel expansion in the preimplantation mouse embryo: stimulatory effect of TGF-a and EGF. Development 1991;113: 919–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tamada H, Das SK, Andrews GK, Dey SK. Cell-type-specific expression of transforming growth factor-α in the mouse uterus during the peri-implantation period. Biol Reprod 1991;45:365–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fischer B. Effects of asynchrony on rabbit blastocyst development. J Reprod Fertil 1989;86:479–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McCaffrey P, Ran W, Campisi J, Rosner MR. Two independent growth factor-generated signals regulate c-fos and c-myc mRNA levels in Swiss 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem 1987;262:1442–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Adamson ED. EGF receptor activities in mammalian development. Mol Reprod Dev 1990;27:16–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Larson RC, Ignotz GG, Currie WB. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) initiates completion of the fourth cell cycle of bovine embryo development. J Reprod Fertil Abstr Ser 1991;7:6.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zimmerman KA, Yancopoulos GD, Collum RG, et al. Differential expression of myc family genes during murine development. Nature (London) 1986;319:780–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Downs KM, Martin GR, Bishop JM. Contrasting patterns of myc and N-myc expression during gastrulation of the mouse embryo. Genes Dev 1989;3: 860–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Whyte A, Stewart HJ. Expression of the proto-oncogene fos (c-fos) by preimplantation blastocysts of the pig. Development 1989;105:651–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fischer B, Rose TA, Nass SJ, Sheffield LG, Bavister BD. Specific binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and expression of c-myc oncogene in mammalian preimplantation embryos. J Reprod Fertil Abstr Ser 1991;7:7.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Letcher LR, Simmen RCM, Pope WF. Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors in preimplantation swine embryos. J Anim Sci 1989;suppl 67:106.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kane MT. In vitro growth of preimplantation rabbit embryos. In: Bavister BD, ed. The mammalian preimplantation embryo. Regulation of growth and differentiation in vitro. New York: Plenum Press, 1987:193–217.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chang MC. Development of bovine blastocyst with a note on implantation. Anat Rec 1952;113:143–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gustafsson H, Plöen L. The morphology of 16 and 17 day old bovine blastocysts from virgin and repeat breeder heifers. Anat Histol Embryol 1986;15:277–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chang MC, Rowson LEA. Fertilization and early development of Dorset Horn sheep in the spring and summer. Anat Rec 1965;152:303–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rowson LEA, Moor RM. Development of the sheep conceptus during the first fourteen days. J Anat 1966;100:777–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Perry JS, Rowlands IW. Early pregnancy in the pig. J Reprod Fertil 1962; 4:175–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Anderson LL. Growth, protein content and distribution of early pig embryos. Anat Rec 1978;190:143–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hofmann GE, Anderson TL. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor receptor during implantation in the rabbit. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1990;162:837–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    DiAugustine RP, Petrusz P, Bell GI, et al. Influence of estrogens on mouse uterine epidermal growth factor precursor protein and messenger ribonucleic acid. Endocrinology 1988;122:2355–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brown MJ, Zogg JL, Schultz GS, Hilton FK. Increased binding of epidermal growth factor at preimplantation sites in mouse uteri. Endocrinology 1989; 124:2882–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Huet-Hudson YM, Andrews GK, Dey SK. Epidermal growth factor and pregnancy in the mouse. In: Heyner S, Wiley LM, eds. Early embryo development and paracrine relationships. New York: Alan R Liss, 1990:125–36.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Simmen RCM, Simmen FA. Regulation of uterine and conceptus secretory activity in the pig. J Reprod Fertil 1990;suppl 40:279–92.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lingham RB, Stancel GM, Loose-Mitchell DS. Estrogen regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor messenger ribonucleic acid. Mol Endocrinol 1988;2:230–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fisher DA, Lakshmanan J. Metabolism and effects of epidermal growth factor and related growth factors in mammals. Endocr Rev 1990;11:418–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Paria BC, Tsukamura H, Dey SK. Epidermal growth factor-specific protein tyrosine phosphorylation in preimplantation embryo development. Biol Reprod 1991;45:711–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Corps AN, Brigstock DR, Littlewood CJ, Brown KD. Receptors for epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I on preimplantation trophoderm of the pig. Development 1990;110:221–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhang Y, Paria DC, Dey SK, Davis DL. Characterization of the epidermal growth factor receptor in preimplantation conceptuses. Dev Biol 1992;151: 617–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Watt R, Stanton LW, Marcu KB, et al. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA of human c-myc oncogene. Nature (London) 1983;303:725–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bernard O, Cory SC, Gerondakis S, Webb E, Adams JM. Sequence of the murine and human cellular myc oncogenes and two modes of myc transcription resulting from chromosome translocation in B lymphoid tumors. EMBO J 1983;2:2375–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Keightley DD, Fisher RJ, Creessie NAC. Properties and interpretation of the Woolf and Scatchard plots in analyzing data from steroid receptor assays. J Steroid Biochem 1983;19:1407–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lee JE, Pintar J, Efstratiadis A. Pattern of the insulin-like growth factor II gene expression during early mouse embryogenesis. Development 1990; 110:151–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harvey MB, Kaye PL. Visualization of insulin receptors on mouse pre-embryos. Reprod Fertil Dev 1991;3:9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rosenblum IY, Mattson BA, Heyner S. Stage-specific insulin binding in mouse preimplantation embryos. Dev Biol 1986;116:261–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Harvey MB, Kaye PL. Mouse blastocysts respond metabolically to short-term stimulation by insulin and IGF-1 through the insulin receptor. Mol Reprod Dev 1991;29:253–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mattson BA, Rosenblum IY, Smith RM, Heyner S. Autoradiographic evidence for insulin and insulin-like growth factor binding to early mouse embryos. Diabetes 1988;37:585–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Florance RSK, Senior PV, Byrne S, Beck F. The expression of IGF-II in the early post-implantation rat conceptus. J Anat 1991;175:169–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Larson RC, Ignotz GG, Currie WB. Defined medium containing TGFß and bFGF permits development of bovine embryos beyond the “8-cell block.” J Reprod Fertil Abstr Ser 1990;5:16.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Saito S, Niemann H. Effects of extracellular matrices and growth factors on the development of isolated porcine blastomeres. Biol Reprod 1991; 44:927–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Letcher R, Simmen RCM, Bazer FW, Simmen FA. Insulin-like growth factor-I expression during early conceptus development in the pig. Biol Reprod 1989;41:1143–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Stewart F, Allen WR. Gene expression in equine conceptus around the time of implantation. J Reprod Fertil Abstr Ser 1991;7:39.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kawamoto T, Sato JD, Le A, et al. Growth stimulation of A431 cells by epidermal growth factor: identification of high-affinity receptors for epidermal growth factor by an anti-receptor monoclonal antibody. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:1337–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Defize LHK, Arndt-Jovin DJ, Jovin TM, et al. A431 cell variants lacking the blood group A antigen display increased high affinity epidermal growth factor-receptor number, protein-tyrosine kinase activity, and receptor turnover. J Cell Biol 1988;107:939–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fitzpatrick SL, La Chance MP, Schultz GS. Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptor and action on human breast cancer cells in culture. Cancer Res 1984;44:3442–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Taketani Y, Oka T. Biological action of epidermal growth factor and its functional receptors in normal mammary epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1983;80:2647–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Richards RC, Beardmore JM, Brown PJ, Molloy CM, Johnson PM. Epidermal growth factor receptors on isolated human placental syncytio-trophoblast plasma membrane. Placenta 1983;4:133–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd Fischer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations