Histochemical Studies in Congenital Clubfeet

  • A. Kojima
  • H. Nakahara
  • N. Shimizu
  • I. Taga
  • K. Ono
  • I. Nonaka
  • K. Hiroshima
Conference paper


The etiology of congenital clubfoot is still unknown although this condition has been well described since ancient times. There are many hypotheses about the etiology, such as primary bone dysplasia,14 aberrations of tendon insertions,4,18 abnormalities in tendon sheaths, abnormal intrauterine posture,1 and neuromuscular defects.5,7,10 Histologically, some authors reported no remarkable findings in muscles and nerves,4,5,9 but others recognized remarkable findings using histochemical technique and electron microscopy.5,7,10,19 In an attempt to evaluate the neuromuscular abnormality in congenital clubfeet, we have carried out histochemical studies of muscles in patients with congenital clubfeet.


Histochemical Study Extensor Digitorum Plantar Flexor Intrinsic Muscle Fiber Atrophy 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Kojima
  • H. Nakahara
  • N. Shimizu
  • I. Taga
  • K. Ono
  • I. Nonaka
  • K. Hiroshima

There are no affiliations available

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