Neutrophils represent a mobile frontline defense against microbial pathogens. By way of the circulatory system, the neutrophil can gain access to virtually any tissue. In addition to the circulating neutrophils, which account for more than half of the white blood cells, new recruits are readily available from the bone marrow. Neutrophils have a short life span of approximately 2–3 days. It is estimated that 80 million neutrophils are generated each minute. Neutrophils which localize to a site of infection become activated to kill or ingest the foreign pathogen in an antigen-nonspecific manner. A misguided neutrophil can cause great damage to healthy tissues. Thus two events in the neutrophil’s short life must be tightly regulated: the site of neutrophil localization and the site of neutrophil activation. Adhesion molecules play a crucial role in neutrophil localization. Three major familes of adhesion molecules involved in neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions have been defined: the leukocyte integrins (LFA-1, Mac-1, and p150,95), the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1,-2,-3), and the selectins (L-selectin, E-selectin, and P-selectin). The leukocyte integrins are crucial in leukocyte localization, as evidenced by patients who are genetically deficient in the expression of all three molecules (reviewed in 1,2). These leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) patients are highly suceptible to severe bacterial infections.


Transendothelial Migration Lectin Domain Homing Receptor Leukocyte Adhesion Molecule Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1993

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  • Takashi Kei Kishimoto

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