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Peritoneal Fluid

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Abstract

The peritoneal cavity of the human usually contains 5 to 20 ml of serous exudate which varies widely depending on the physiological condition. In the female, this volume changes during the menstrual cycle to reach maximal levels after ovulation (Figure 2.1; Alfonsin & Leiderman, 1980). When pressure in the hepatic sinusoids rises more than 5 to 10 mm Hg, fluid containing large amounts of protein transudes through the liver surface into the abdominal cavity. Excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity is either a transudate (specific gravity < 1.010), which accumulates (ascites) from peritoneal obstruction or circulatory differences (failure, portal cardiac hypertension, hypofibrinogenemia, etc.), or an exudate (specific gravity > 1.020), which arises from inflammation. The hepatic resistance to portal blood flow induces a capillary pressure in the visceral peritoneum that is higher than elsewhere in the body (Guyton, 1973). The pH of peritoneal fluid ranges between 7.5 and 8.0 and contains significant buffering capacity (Greenwalt, Nakamura, & diZerega, 1988). The pH of peritoneal fluid in aspirates from 59 patients with perforated peptic ulcer was 7.0 to 7.8 (Howard & Singh, 1963). Due to the hydrostatic pressure gradient between plasma and the peritoneal compartment, normal peritoneal fluid also contains many of the plasma proteins in about 50% of the plasma concentration (Rune, 1970a, 1970b, 1970c, 1970d).

Keywords

  • Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Peritoneal Cavity
  • Mesothelial Cell
  • Peritoneal Fluid
  • Endometrial Tissue

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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diZerega, G.S., Rodgers, K.E. (1992). Peritoneal Fluid. In: The Peritoneum. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9235-4_2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9235-4_2

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