Advertisement

Jikuri, the Tarahumara Peyote Cult: An Interpretation

  • Alfonso Paredes
  • Fructuoso Irigoyen-Rascón

Abstract

Few colleagues would question the wisdom of those psychiatrists who take time from the clinic to work in the laboratory to study the neural systems that provide the background to psychological function. On the other hand, is it legitimate to devote time for inquiries in that laboratory of social transactions that we call the community? What is the relevance of investigations conducted in social settings alien to our own? Twenty years ago, LJ West, undaunted by such considerations, organized an expedition to a remote area in the Sierra Madre of Mexico to study the Tarahumara Indian Tribe. He went there accompanied by a group of investigators affiliated with scientific disciplines that included physiology, nutrition, medicine, psychiatry, and anthropology. The data collected by this team, it was hoped, could be used to construct a matrix that would offer a multidimensional view of the adaptive mechanisms that make survival possible under challenging environmental and social conditions.

Keywords

Mexico City Hallucinatory Experience Supernatural Power Iconic Image Multidimensional View 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Paredes A, West LJ, Snow CC. Efectos de vectores heterónomos en el ecosistema Tarahumara. Revista del Instituto Nacional de Neurologie (México). 1972;1:22–32.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Paredes A, West LJ, Snow CC. Biosocial adaptation and correlates of acculturation in the Tarahumara Ecosystem. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 1970;16:163–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zeiner AR, Paredes A, Cowden L. Physiological responses to ethanol among the Tarahumara Indians. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1976;273:146–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zeiner AR, Paredes A, Musicant R, Cowden L. Racial differences in psychophysiological response to ethanol; and placebo. In: Seixas FA, ed. Currents in Alcoholism, I. New York: Grune & Stratton; 1977:186–271.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zeiner AR, Blackburn M, Stratton R, Paredes A. The Tarahumara revisited. Biol Psychol Bull. 1978;5:113–119.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zeiner AR, Paredes A. Differential biological sensitivity to ethanol as a predictor of alcohol abuse. In: Smith DE, Anderson JM, Buxton M, et al, A Multicultural View of Drug Abuse. Cambridge, MA: Schnekman Publishing; 1978:591–599.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zeiner AR, Paredes A. Racial differences in circadian variation of ethanol metabolism Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res. 1978;2:71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zeiner AR, Paredes A, Christensen B. The role of acetaldehyde in mediating reactivity to an acute dose of ethanol among different racial groups. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res. 1979;3:11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zeiner A, Blackburn M, Stratton R, Paredes A. Ethanol elimination rate among Tarahumara Indians. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res. 1979;3:201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zeiner AR, Stratton R, Blackburn A, Paredes A. Blood pressure and heart rate in relationship to acetaldehyde concentration among the Tarahumara Indians. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res. 1979;3:201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bennett WC, Zingg RM. The Tarahumara, an Indian Tribe of Northern Mexico. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1935.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fried J. The relation of ideal norms to actual behavior in Tarahumara Society. Southwest J Anthropol. 1953;9:286–295.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Plancarte FM. El problema indígena Tarahumara. Mexico City: Mexico Ediciones del Institute Nacional Indigenista, 1954.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balke B, Snow C. Anthropological and physiological observations on Tarahumara endurance runners. Am J Phy Anthropol. 1965:23:293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pennington C. The Tarahumar of Mexico. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press; 1963.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Irigoyen-Rascón F, Palma-Batista JM. Rarajipari: the kick-ball race of the Tarahumara Indians. Ann Sports Med. 1985;2:79–94.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kennedy JG. Tesguino complex: the role of beer in Tarahumara culture. Am Anthropol. 1963; 65:620–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Benítez F. Los Indios de México. Mexico City, Mexico: Ediciones Era; 1967.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Munn N. Symbolism in a ritual context: aspects of symbolic action In: Hoengiman J, ed. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishers; 1973.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Swadesh M. Indian linguistic groups of Mexico. México City: Escuela Nacional de Antropología é Historia, México, 1959.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rodríguez H, Rodríguez E, Loria A, Lisker R. studies on several genetic hematological traits of the Mexican population V. Distribution of blood group antigens in Nahuas, Yaquis, Tarahumara, Tarascos and Mixtecos. Hum Biol. 1959;35:350–360.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Slotkin S. The Peyote Religion. New York: Free Press of Glencoe; 1956.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    La Barre W. The Peyote Cult. Shoe Hamden, Conn: String Press; 1964.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aguirre-Beltrán G. Mediana y magia, el proceso de aculturación en la estructura. Mexico City: Colonial Institute Nacional Indigenista, SEP/INI 1974.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Deimel C. Tarahumara Indianer im Norden Mexicos. Frankfurt am Mein: Syndikat; 1980.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deimel C. Narárachi, Zwischen Traditionalismus und Integration Aufstatz zur Vorlage bei der Siftung Studienkreis. Hamburg: 1976.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Irigoyen-Rascón F. Cerocahui: Una comunidad in la Tarahumara. Mexico City, México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; 1974.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lumholtz K. El México Desconocido, Cinco Años de Exploración Entre las Tribus de la Sierra Madre Occidental en la Tierra Caliente de Nayarit y Jalisco y Entre los Tarascos de Michoacán. Editera Nacional Mexico City, Mexico; 1970.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    de Velasco Rivero P. Danzar ó morir. Centro de Reflexión Teológica, A.C.: Coyoacán D.F., Mexico City, México; 1987.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cazeneuve J. Sociologie du Rite. Paris; Presses Universitaires de France; 1971.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bye Jr, RE. Plantas psicotrópicas de la Tarahumara. Mexico City: Cuadernos Científicos CEMEF (November) Mexico, 1975.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bye R Jr. Hallucinogenic plants of the Tarahumara. J Ethnopharmacol. 1979;1:23–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    La Barre W. Peyote and mescaline. J Psychedelic Drugs. 1979;11:1–2.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wasson G. Notes on the present status of ololiuiqui and the other hallucinogens of México. In: The Psychedelic Reader. New Hyde Park NY: University Books; 1965.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    West LJ. Persuasive techniques in contemporary cults: a public health approach. In: Galanter M, ed. Cults and New Religious Movements. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1989:165–192.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Paredes A. Social controls of drinking among the Aztec Indians of Mesoamerica. J Studies Alcohol. 1975;36:1139–1153.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liebman R. Medical anthropology. In: Honegimann J, ed. Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology. Chicago: Rand McNally College Publishers; 1973:1051–1083.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Engel G. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science. 1977; 196:129–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eraker SA, Kirscht JP, Becker MH. Under-standing and improving patient compliance. Ann Intern Med. 1984;100:258–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfonso Paredes
  • Fructuoso Irigoyen-Rascón

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations