The epidemiology of heart failure in western countries has changed considerably over the last two decades. Rheumatic valvular disease has receded into the background and the leading causes of chronic congestive heart failure are now coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy. Their principal deleterious effect is left ventricular damage or dysfunction.
KeywordsHeart Failure Cardiac Output Infective Endocarditis Constrictive Pericarditis Left Ventricular Filling Pressure
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