Thyroid Cancer in the Pediatric Patient

  • Jeffrey I. Mechanick


Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents is rare. When a juvenile presents with a neck mass or swelling, the clinical evaluation is particularly challenging to the endocrinologist. In general, thyroid neoplasms in the pediatric population are distinguished from those in the adult condition by (1) a strong association with previous neck irradiation (Chapter 3); (2) a predominance of the papillary form (Chapter 1); (3) a presentation with cervical lymph node metastases; and (4) a need to specially consider the therapeutic effects of initial surgical approaches and the subsequent effects of thyroid function on growth and development (Table 4.1). These distinguishing features justify consideration of pediatric thyroid cancer as being a separate entity from the adult form.


Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Carcinoma Thyroid Nodule Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Total Thyroidectomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gharib H, Goellner JR. Evaluation of nodular thyroid disease. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1988; 17: 511–526.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stoffer RP, Welch JW, Hellwig CA, Chesky VE, McCusker EN. Nodular goiter. Arch Int Med 1960; 106: 10–14.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vander JB, Gaston EA, Dawber TR. The significance of nontoxic thyroid nodules. Ann Int Med 1968; 69: 537–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rallison ML, Dobyns BM, Keating R, Rail JE, Tyler FH. Thyroid nodularity in children. JAMA 1975; 233: 1069–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hayles AB, Kennedy RLJ, Woolner LB, Black BM. Nodular lesions of the thyroid gland in children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1956; 1580–1594.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sussman L, Librik L, Clayton GW. Hyperthyroidism attributable to a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma. J Pediatr 1968; 84: 104–107.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hopwood NJ, Carroll RG, Kenny FM, Foley TP. Functioning thyroid masses in childhood and adolescence. J Pediatr 1976; 89: 710–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hamburger JI, Hamburger SW. Thyroidal hemiagenesis. Arch Surg 1970; 100: 319–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    LiVolsi VA, Perzin KH, Sevetsky L. Carcinoma arising in median ectopic thyroid (including thyroglossal duct tissue). Cancer 1974; 34: 1303–1315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McNicoll MP, Hawkins DB, England K, Penny R, Maceri DR. Papillary carcinoma arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst. Otol Head Neck Surg 1988; 99: 50–54.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gharieb M. Angeborene form- und lageanomalie der sehilddruse im kindesalter. Z Kinderchir 1972; 11: 194–201.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Merrick Y, Hansen HS. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Denmark. European J Surg Oncol 1989; 15: 49–53.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eirhardt O. Ziir anatomie und klinik der struma maligna. Beitr Klin Chir 1902; 35: 342–464.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Buckwalter JA, Nelson JG, Thomas CG. Cancer of the thyroid in youth. World J Surg 1981; 5: 15–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kirkland RT, Kirkland JL. Solitary thyroid nodules in 30 children and report of a child with thyroid abscess. Ped 1973; 51: 85–90.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hagler S, Rosenblum P, Rosenblum A. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children and adults: iatrogenic relation to previous irradiation. Pediatrics 1966; 38: 77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goepfert J, Dichtel WJ, Samaan NA. Thyroid cancer in children and teenagers. Arch Otol 1984; 110: 72–75.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Halpern S. Thyroid carcinoma in childhood. Med Ped Oncol 1981; 9: 143–151.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liechty RD, Safaie-Shirazi S, Soper RT. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1972; 134: 595–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harness JK, Thompson NW, Nishiyama RH. Childhood thyroid carcinoma. Arch Surg 1971; 102: 278–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Crile G. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children. Ann Surg 1959; 150: 959–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Desjardins JG, Bass J, Leboeuf G, Di Lorenzo M, Letarte J, Khan AH, et al. A twenty-year experience with thyroid carcinoma in children. J Ped Surg 1988; 23: 709–713.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Desjardins JG, Khan AH, Montupet P, Collin PP, Leboeuf G, Polychronakos C, et al. Management of thyroid nodules in children: a 20-year experience. J Ped Surg 1987; 22: 736–739.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pfister-Goedeke L, Stauffer UG. Thyroid carcinoma in childhood. Prog Ped Surg 1983; 16: 29–37.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lamberg BA, Karninen-Jaaskelainen M, Franssila KO. Differentiated follicle-derived thyroid carcinoma in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 1989; 78: 419–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Doci R, Pilotti S, Costa A, Semeraro G, Cascinelli N. Thyroid cancer in childhood. Tumori 1978; 64: 649–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jereb B, Lowhagen T. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children and young adults. Acta Radiol Ther Phys Biol 1972; 2: 411–421.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ceccarelli C, Pacini F, Lippi F, Elisei R, Arganini M, Miccoli P, et al. Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents. Surgery 1988; 104: 1143–1148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Richardson JE, Beaugie JM, Brown CL, Doniach I. Thyroid cancer in young patients in Great Britain. Br J Surg 1974; 61: 85–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Andersson A, Bergdahl L, Boquist L. Thyroid carcinoma in children. Am Surg 1977; 43: 159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Belfiore A, Giuffrida D, La Rosa GL, Ippolito O, Russo G, Fiumara A, et al. Acta Endocrinol 1989; 121: 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kodama T, Fujimoto Y, Obara T, Hidai K. Justification of conservative surgical treatment of childhood thyroid cancer: report of eleven cases and analysis of Japanese literature. Jpn J Cancer Res 1986; 77: 799–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Segal K, Levy, R, Sidi J, Abraham A. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1985; 94: 346–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zohar Y, Strauss M, Laurian N. Adolescent versus adult thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope 1986; 96: 555–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Winship T, Rosvoll RV. Thyroid carcinoma in childhood: final report on a 20 year study. Clin Proc Child Hosp 1970; 26: 327–348.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schlumberger M, De Vathaire F, Travagli JP, Vassal G, Lemerle J, Parmenter C, et al. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in childhood: long term follow-up of 72 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987; 65: 1088–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Quimby EH, Werner SC. Late radiation effects in roentgen therapy for hyperthyroidism. JAMA 1949; 140: 1046–1047.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Duffy BJ, Fitzgerald PJ. Cancer of the thyroid in children: a report of 28 cases. J Clin Endocrinol 1950a; 10: 1296–1308.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Duffy BJ, Fitzgerald PJ. Thyroid cancer in childhood and adolescence: a report on twenty-eight cases. Cancer 1950b; 3: 1018–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hayles AB, Johnson ML, Bears OH, Woolner LB. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children. Am J Surg 1963; 106: 735–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Scott MD, Crawford JD. Solitary thyroid nodules in childhood: is the incidence of thyroid carcinoma declining? Pediatrics 1976; 58: 521–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hung W, August GP, Randolph JG, Schisgall RM, Chandra R. Solitary thyroid nodules in children and adolescents. J Ped Surg 1982; 17: 225–229.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Adams HD. Carcinoma in nodular goiter of childhood. Postgrad Med 1968; 43: 136–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dailey ME, Lindsay S. Thyroid neoplasms in youth. J Pediatr 1950; 36: 460–465.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sanfelippo MM, Bears OH, Hayles AB. Indications for thyroidectomy in the pediatric patients. Am J Surg 1971; 122: 472–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Horn RD, Ravdin IS. Carcinoma of the thyroid gland on youth. J Clin Endocrinol 1951; 11: 1166–1170.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mauras N, Zimmerman D, Goellner JR. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis associated with thyroid cancer in adolescent patients. J Pediatr 1985; 106: 895–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hirabayashi RN, Lindsay S. Thyroid carcinoma and chronic thyroiditis of the Hashimoto type: a statistical study of their relationship. In: Appaix A, ed. Tumors of the Thyroid Gland. New York: American Elsevier; 1966: 272–291.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shlicke CP, Hill JE, Schultz GF. Carcinoma in chronic thyroiditis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1960; 111: 552–556.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Crile G, Hazard JB. Incidence of cancer in struma lymphomatosa. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1962; 115: 101–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fisher DA, Oddie TH, Johnson DE, Nelson TC. The diagnosis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1975; 40: 795–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kamma H, Fujii K, Ogata T. Lymphocytic infiltration in juvenile thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 1988; 62: 1988–1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stoffer SS, Van Dyke DL, Bach JV, Szpunar W, Weiss L. Familial papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Med Genet 1986; 25: 775–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sipple JH. The association of pheochromocytoma with carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Am J Med 1961; 31: 163–166.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Williams ED, Pollack DJ. Multiple mucosal neuromata with endocrine tumors: a syndrome allied to Von Recklinghausen’s disease. J Pathol Bacteriol 1966; 91: 71–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Carney JA, Go VLW, Gordon H, Pearse AGE, Sheps SG. Familial pheochromocytoma and islet cell tumor of the pancreas. Am J Med 1980; 68: 515–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Camiel MR, Mule JE, Alexander LI, Benninghoff DL. Association of thyroid carcinoma with Gardner’s syndrome in siblings. New Engl J Med 1968; 278: 1056–1059.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Friedman JM, Fialkow PJ. Genetic factors in thyroid disease. In: Ingbar SH, Braverman LE, eds. Werner’s The Thyroid, Chapter 30. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1986; 634–650.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stanbury JB. Thyroid-specific metabolic incompetence and tumor development. In: Hedinger CE, ed. Thyroid Cancer. UICC Monogr Series, Vol 12. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1969: 183–192.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Elman DS. Familial association of nerve deafness with nodular goiter and thyroid carcinoma. New Engl J Med 1958; 259: 219–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Winship T. Carcinoma of the thyroid in childhood. Pediatrics 1956; 18: 459–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Clark RL, White EC, Russel WO. Total thyroidectomy for cancer of the thyroid; significance of intraglandular dissemination. Ann Surg 1959; 149: 858–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tawes RL, DeLorimier AA. Thyroid carcinoma during youth. J Ped Surg 1968; 3: 210–218.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Frazell EL, Foote FW. The natural history of thyroid cancer; a review of 301 cases. J Clin Endocrinol 1949; 9: 1023–1030.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pollock WF, Juler G. Thyroid carcinoma in children. Am J Dis Child 1963; 105: 59–64.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hamburger JI, Husain M. Fine-needle biopsy: extended observations. In: Hamburger JI, ed. Diagnostic Methods in Clinical Thyroidology. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1989: 221–253.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harsoulis P, Leontsini M, Economou A, Gerasimidis T, Smbarounis C. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer; comparative study of 213 operated patients. Br J Surg 1986; 73: 461–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ramacciotti CE, Pretorius HT, Chu EW, Barsky SH, Prennan MF, Robbins J. Diagnostic accuracy and use of aspiration biopsy in the management of thyroid nodules. Arch Intern Med 1984; 144: 1169–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hamburger JI, Husain M. Fine-needle biopsy: extended observations. In, Hamburger JI, ed. Diagnostic Methods in Clinical Thyroidology. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1989: 221–253.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Frable WI, Frable MA. Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid: histopathologic and clinical correlations. In: Feneglio C and Wolff M, eds. Progress in Surgical Pathology. Masson: New York; 1980: 105–115.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Liautaud-Roger F, Dufer J, Pluot M, Delisle MJ, Coninx P. Contribution of quantitative cytology to the cytological diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms. Anticancer Res 1989; 9: 231–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Luck JB, Mumaw VR, Frable WJ. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid. Differential diagnosis by videoplan image analysis. Acta Cytol 1982; 26: 793–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lukacs GL, Miko TL, Fabian E, Zs-Nagy I, Csaky G, Balazs Gy. The validity of some morphologic methods in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. Acta Chir Scand 1983; 149: 759–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hay ID. Prognostic factors in thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid today 1989; 12: 1–9.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bronner MP, Cleverger CV, Edmonds PR, Lowell DM, McFarland MM, LiVolsi VA. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in Hurthle cell adenomas and carcinomas of the thyroid. Am J Clin Pathol 1988; 89: 764–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zimmerman D, Hay ID, Gough IR, Goellner JR, Ryan JJ, Grant CS, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adults: long-term follow-up of 1039 patients conservatively treated at one institution during three decades. Surgery 1988; 104: 1157–1166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Komorowski RA, Deaconson TF, Vetsch R, Cerletty JM, Wilson SD. DNA content in radiation-associated thyroid cancer. Surgery 1988; 104: 992–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Klopp CT, Rosvoll RV, Winship T. Is destructive surgery ever necessary for treatment of thyroid cancer in children. Ann Surgery 1967; 165: 745–751.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    La Quaglia MP, Corbally MT, Heller G, Exelby PR, Brennan MF. Recurrence and morbidity in differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children. Surgery 1988; 104: 1149–1156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Exelby PE, Frazell EL. Carcinoma of the thyroid in children. Surg Clin North Am 1969; 49: 249–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Leeper RD. Treatment of thyroid cancer. In: Soto RJ, Sartorio de Forteza I, eds. New concepts in Thyroid Disease. New York: Alan R Liss; 1983: 139–153.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Joppich I, Roher HD, Hecker WCh, Knorr D, Daum R. Thyroid carcinoma in childhood. Prog Ped Surg 1983; 16: 23–28.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Grant CS, Hay ID, Gough IR, Bergstrahl EJ, Goellner JR, McConahey WM. Local recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma: is extent of surgical resection important? Surgery 1988; 104: 954–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Franssila K. Value of histologic classification of thyroid cancer. Acta Path Microbiol Scand Section A (Suppl 225): 1971 ;l–76.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Carcangiu ML, Zampi G, Pupi A, Castagnoli A, Rosai J. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. A clinicopathological study of 241 cases treated at the university of Florence, Italy. Cancer 1985; 55: 805–828.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tubiana M, Schlumberger M, Rougier P, LaPlanche A, Benhamov E, Gardet P et al. Long-term results and prognostic factors in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Cancer 1985; 55: 794–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mazzaferri EL, Young RL. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: a 10-year follow-up report of the impact of therapy in 576 patients. Am J Med 1981; 70: 511–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Varma VM, Beierwaltes WH, Nofal MM, Nishiyama RH, Copp JE. Treatment of thyroid cancer. Death rates after surgery and after surgery followed by sodium iodide 131I. JAMA 1970; 214: 1437–1442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Byrne J, Mulvihill JJ, Myers MH, Connelly RR, Naughton MD, Krauss MR, et al. Effects of treatment on fertility in long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer. New Engl J Med 1987; 317: 1315–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Maxon HR, Smith HS. Radioiodine-131 in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic welldifferentiated thyroid cancer. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1990; 19: 685–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Korff JM, Degroot LJ. The management of radiation-induced tumors of the thyroid. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1981; 10: 299–315.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hosoya R, Eiraku K, Saiki S, Nishimura K. Thyroid carcinoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. Cancer 1983; 51: 1931–1933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Clayton GW, Kirkland RT. Thyroid carcinoma. In: Gardner LI, ed. Endocrine and Genetic Disease of Childhood and Adolescence. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1975: 325–329.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Cady B. The case against total thyroidectomy in differentiated thyroid cancer. In: Najarian JS, Delany JP, eds. Advances in Breast and Endocrine Surgery. Chicago: Year Book Medical; 1986: 281–287.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Buckwalter JA, Thomas CG, Freeman JB. Is childhood thyroid cancer a lethal disease? Ann Surg 1975; 181: 632–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Crile G. The endocrine dependency of certain thyroid cancers and the danger that hypothyroidism may stimulate their growth. Cancer 1957; 10: 1119–1137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Cady B, Sedgwick CE, Meissner WA, Buckwalter JA, Romagosa V, Werber J. Changing clinical, pathologic, therapeutics and survival patterns in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg 1977; 184: 541–553.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schlumberger M, Tubiana M, De Vathaire F, Hill C, Gardet P, Travagli JP, et al. Long-term results of treatment of 283 patients with lung and bone metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1986; 63: 960–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Piechaczyk M, Baldet L, Pau B, Bastide J-M. Novel immunoradiometric assay of thyroglobulin in serum with use of monoclonal antibodies selected for lack of cross-reactivity with autoantibodies. Clin Chem 1989; 35: 422–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Winship T, Rosvoll RV. Cancer of the thyroid in children. Proc Natl Cancer Conf 1968; 6: 677–681.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Statistical Report of End Results, 1949–1957. Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Diseases and the James Ewing Hospital of the City of New York. 1965;103.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tallroth E, Backdahl M, Einhorn J, Lundell G, Lowhagen T, Silfversward C. Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents. Cancer 1986; 58: 2329–2332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zabransky S. Das Schilddrusenkarzinom beim Kind. Arch Kinder-heilk 1969; 179: 236–241.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Withers EH, Rosenfield L, O’Niell J, Lynch JB, Holcomb G. Long-term experience with childhood thyroid carcinoma. J Ped Surg 1979; 14: 332–335.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Tubiana M, Lacour J, Monnier JP, Bergiron C, Gerard-Marchant R, Roujeau J, et al. External radiotherapy and radioiodine in the treatment of 359 thyroid cancers. Br J Radiol 1975; 48: 894–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Flynn SD, Forman BH, Stewart AF, Kinder BK. Poorly differentiated (“insular”) carcinoma of the thyroid gland: an aggressive subset of differentiated thyroid neoplasms. Surgery 1988; 104: 963–970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Har-El G, Hadar T, Segal K, Levy R, Sidi J. Hiirthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Cancer 1986; 57: 1613–1617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gorlin JB, Sallan SE. Thyroid cancer in childhood. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1990; 19: 649–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Thomas CG. Progression in thyroid cancer. Clin Endocrinol 1968; 11: 26–38.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jackson IMD, Thomson JA. The relationship of carcinoma to the single thyroid nodule. Br J Surg 1967; 54: 1007–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Numanoglu J, Aksu Y, Mutaf O. Teratoma of thyroid gland in new-born infant. J Ped Surg 1970; 5: 381–382.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Suzuki H, Kato T, Yabe K. Teratoma of the thyroid in a 2-month old infant. Z Kinderchir 1974; 15: 340–344.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fisher JE, Cooney DR, Voorhess ML, Jewett TC. Teratoma of the thyroid gland in infancy: report of the literature and two case reports. J Surg Oncol 1982; 21: 135–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey I. Mechanick

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations