Asymmetrical Growth of Edge Delaminations in CFRP Tensile Specimens

  • Peter A. Klumpp
  • Eckart Schnack
Conference paper
Part of the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics book series (IUTAM)


Quasistatic tension tests were carried out on special delamination specimens made from carbon fiber/epoxy using a PTFE foil as a start delamination. The development of edge delaminations can easily be observed by two modern optical techniques (shearography and reflection grating technique) which are briefly described.


Composite Laminate Delamination Growth Specimen Edge Delamination Front Delamination Length 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andresen, K., Ritter, R., and Schütze, R., 1985, “Application of grating methods for testing of material and quality control including digital image processing,” SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 599, pp. 251–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dainty, J.C., ed., 1984, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  3. De Haas, H.M., and Loof, H.W., 1966, “An optical method to facilitate the interpretation of moiré pictures,” VDI Berichte, Vol. 120, pp. 75–80.Google Scholar
  4. Harris, A., and Orringer, O., 1979, “Investigation of angle-ply dela-mination specimen for interlaminar strength test,” Journ. Comp. Mat., Vol. 12, pp. 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Herakovich, C.T., Post, D., Buczek, M.B., and Czarnek, R., 1985, “Free edge strain concentrations in real composite laminates: experimental-theoretical correlation,” Journ. Appl. Mech., Vol. 52, pp. 787–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hung, Y.Y., and Taylor, C.E., 1974, “Measurement of slopes of structural deflections by speckle-shearing interferometry,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 14, pp. 281–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hung, Y.Y., and Liang, C.Y., 1979, “Image-shearing camera for direct measurements of surface strains,” Applied Optics, Vol. 18, pp. 1046–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jones, R., and Wykes, C., 1983, Holographic and Speckle Inteferometry, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Jones, R.M., 1975, Mechanics of Composite Materials, Scripta Book Comp., Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  10. Klumpp, P.A., 1989, “Simple spatial filtering for shearograms,” Optics S Laser Technology, Vol. 21, pp. 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Klumpp, P.A., and Schnack, E., 1989, “White light reconstruction setup for shearograms,” Applied Optics, Vol. 28, pp. 3270–3271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kreis, T.M., and Kreitlow, H., 1980, “Quantitative evaluation of holographic interference patterns under image processing aspects,” SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 210, pp. 196–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Masters, J.E., and Reifsnider, K.L., 1982, “An investigation of cumulative damage development in quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy laminates”, ASTM-STP, Vol. 775, K.L. Reifsnider, ed., pp. 40–62.Google Scholar
  14. O’Brien, T.K., 1984, “Mixed-mode strain energy release rate effects on edge delamination of composites,” ASTM-STP, Vol. 836, pp. 125–142.Google Scholar
  15. O’Brien, T.K., 1980, “Characterization of delamination onset and growth in a composite laminate,” ASTM-STP, Vol. 775, pp. 140–167.Google Scholar
  16. Pagano, N.J., and Pipes, R.B., 1973, “Some observations on the inter-laminar strength of composite laminates,” Int. Journ. of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 15, pp. 679–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pinchas, B.Y., and Pian, T.H.H., 1981, “Calculation of interlaminar stress concentration in composite laminates,” Journ. Comp. Mater., Vol. 15, pp. 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pipes, R.B., and Pagano, N.J., 1970, “Interlaminar stresses in composite laminates under uniform axial extension”, Journ. Comp. Mater., Vol. 4, pp. 538–548.Google Scholar
  19. Post, D., 1983, “Moiré interferometry at VPI and SU”, Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 23, pp. 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Reifsnider, K.L., Henneke, E.G., and Stinchcomb, W.W., 1977, “Delamination in quasiisotropic graphite-epoxy laminates,” ASTM-STP, Vol. 617, pp. 93–105.Google Scholar
  21. Reifsnider, K.L., Henneke, E.G., Stinchcomb, W.W., and Duke, J.C., 1983, “Damage mechanics and NDE of composite laminates,” Proceedings of IUTAM Symposium on mechanics of composite materials, Blacksburg, VA, Z. Hashin and C.T. Herakovich, eds., pp. 399–420.Google Scholar
  22. Ritter, R., and Hahn, R., 1983, “Contribution to the analysis of the reflection grating method”, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rohwer, K., 1982, “Stresses and deformations in laminated test specimens of carbon fiber reinforced composites,” DFVLR-Forschungsbericht, No. 82–15, DFVLR Braunschweig/FRG, 82 pages.Google Scholar
  24. Schütze, R., and Goetting, H.C., 1985, “On-line measurement of onset and growth of edge-delaminations in CFRP-laminates by an optical grating reflection method,” Zeitschrift für Werkstofftechnik, Vol. 16, pp. 306–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sciamarella, C.A., 1982, “The moiré method — a review,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 22, pp. 418–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sharma, D.K., Sirohi, R.S., and Kothiyal, M.P., 1984, “Simultaneous measurement of slope and curvature with a three-aperture speckle shearing interferometer,” Applied Optics, Vol. 23, pp. 1542–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharma, D.K., Krishna Mohan, N., and Sirohi, R.S., 1986, “A holographic speckle shearing technique for the measurement of out-of-plane displacement, slope and curvature,” Opt. Communications, Vol. 57, pp. 230–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vest, C.M., 1979, Holographic Interferometry, Wiley and Sons, NY.Google Scholar
  29. Wang, A.S.D., and Crossman, F.W., 1980, “Initiation and growth of transverse cracks and edge delaminations in composite laminates”, Journ. Comp. Mat. Supplement, Vol. 14, Part 1: pp. 71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Part 2: pp. 88–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang, A.S.D., and Slomiana, M., 1982, “Fracture mechanics of delamination — initiation and growth”, NADC-TR-79056–60, Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, PA, 169 pages.Google Scholar
  32. Wang, A.S.D., Slomiana, M. and Bucinell, R.B., 1985, “Delamination crack growth in composite laminates,” ASTM-STP, Vol. 876, W.S. Johnson, ed., pp. 135–167.Google Scholar
  33. Whitcomb, J.D., and Raju, I.S., 1985, “Analysis of interlaminar stresses in thick composite laminates with and without edge delamination,” ASTM-STP, Vol. 876, W.S. Johnson, ed., pp. 69–94.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter A. Klumpp
    • 1
  • Eckart Schnack
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Solid MechanicsKarlsruhe UniversityFR Germany

Personalised recommendations