Anatomy, Histology, and Physiology

  • Rita Iovine Demopoulos
  • Khushbakhat Rai Mittal
Part of the Clinical Perspectives in Obstetrics and Gynecology book series (CPOG)


The uterus serves the function of providing the developing fetus with a relatively safe and nutritive environment in which to mature. It shows considerable variation in gross and microscopic appearance from neonate to adulthood to senescence.


Obstet Gynecol Uterine Cervix Squamous Metaplasia Human Endometrium Ovarian Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blanchard M, Jasso N: Sources of the anti-Mullerian hormone synthesized by the fetal testes: Mullerian inhibiting activity of fetal bovine Sertoli cells in tissue culture. Pediatr Res 1974;8:968–971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gray SW, Skandalakis JE: Embryology for Surgeons: The Embryological Basis for the Treatment of Congenital Defects. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1972, pp 663–664.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wallach EE: The uterine factor in infertility. Fertil Steril 1972;23:138–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Winter JD, Kohn G, Mellinin WJ, et al: A familial syndrome of renal, genital, and middle ear anomalies. J Pediatr 1968;72:88–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Edwards JA, Gale RF: Camptobrachydactyly: a new autosomal dominant trait with two probable homozygotes. Am J Hum Genet 1972;23:464–469.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ober WB, Bernstein J: Observations on the endometrium and ovary in the newborn. Pediatrics 1955;16:445–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frommer DJ: Changing age at menopause. Br Med J 1964;2:349–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Markee JE: Menstruation in intraoccular endometrial transplant in the rhesus monkey. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publ no 518. Contrib Embryol 1940;28:219–228.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Casey ML, Hamsell DL, MacDonald PC, Johnston JM: NAD+ dependent 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in human endometrium. Prostaglandins 1980;19:115–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferenczy A, Bertrand G, Gefland M. Studies on the cytodynamics of human endometrial regeneration III—in vitro short-term incubation historadioautography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979;134:297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bur MA, Greene GL, Press MF: Estrogen receptor localization in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded endometrium and endometriotic tissues. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1987;6:140–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naftolin F, Stubblefield PG (eds): Dilatation of the Uterine Cervix. Connective Tissue Biology and Clinical Management. New York, Raven Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dougherty CM, Moore WR, Cotton N: Histologic diagnosis and clinical significance of benign lesions of the nonpregnant cervix. Ann NY Acad Sci 1962;97:683–702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fuchs AR: Prostaglandin F2 alpha and oxytocin interactions in ovarian and uterine function. J Steroid Biochem 1987;27:1073–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pritchard JA, MacDonald PC, Gant NF: Williams Obstetrics, ed 7. Norwalk, CT, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1985.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Plentl AA, Friedman EA: Lymphatic System of the Female Genitalia: The Morphologic Basis of Oncologic Diagnosis and Therapy. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1971.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL: Endometrial epithelial metaplasias: proliferations misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma: report of 89 cases and proposed classification. Am J Surg Pathol 1980;4:525–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schueller EF: Ciliated epithelia of the human uterine mucosa. Obstet Gynecol 1968;31:215–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fleming S, Tweeddale DN, Roddick JW: Ciliated endometrial cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1968;102:186–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lane ME, Dacalos E, Sorrero AJ, Ober WB: Squamous metaplasia of the endometrium in women with an intrauterine contraceptive device. Follow-up study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1974;119:693–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baggish MS, Woodruff JD: The occurrence of squamous epithelium in the endometrium. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1967;22:69–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dutra F: Intraglandular morules of the endometrium. Am J Clin Pathol 1959;31:60–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Solomon C, Polishuk W: Myxometra resulting from mucous metaplasia of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1954;68:1600–1603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL: Surgical Pathology of the Uterine Corpus. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1980, p 209.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roth E, Raylor HB: Heterotopic cartilage in the uterus. Obstet Gynecol 1966;27:838–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Adamson NE Jr, Sommers SC: Endometrial ossification—report of two cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1954;67:187–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Courpes AS, Morris JD, Woodruff JD: Osteoid tissue in utero. Report of 3 cases. Obstet Gynecol 1964;24:636–640.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ganem K, Parsons L, Friedell G: Endometrial ossification. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1962;83:1592–1598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hillenius L, Knutson F, Anberg A: Osseous tissue in the uterus. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 1953;33:387–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hart WR: Cervix adenocarcinoma of mesonephric type. Cancer 1972;29:106–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lang G, Dallenbach-Hellweg G: The histogenetic origin of cervical mesonephric hyperplasia and mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix studied with immunohistochemical methods. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1990;9:145–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Green FHY, Fox H: A study of secretory immune system of the female genital tract. Br Jr Obstet Gynaecol 1975;82:812–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Puts JG, Moesker O, Waal RMW, et al: Immunohistochemical identification of Langerhans cells in normal epithelium and epithelial lesions of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1986;5:151–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Winkelstein W Jr: Smoking and cancer of the uterine cervix: hypothesis. Am J Epidemiol 1977;106:257–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Grail A, Norval M: Significance of smoking and detection of serum antibodies to cytomegalovirus in cervical dysplasia. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1988;95:1103–1110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hawthorn RJS, Murdoch JB, MacLean AB, Machie RM: Langerhans cells and subtypes of human papillomavirus in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Br Med J 1988;297:643–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marshall RJ, Jones DB: An immunohistochemical study of lymphoid tissue in human endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol 1988;7:225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bulmer JN, Hagin SV, Browne CM, Billington WD: Localization of immunoglobulin-containing cells in human endometrium in the first trimester of pregnancy and throughout the menstrual cycle. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1986;23:31–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kamat BR, Isaacson PA: The immunohistochemical distribution of leukocytic subpopulations in human endometrium. Am J Pathol 1987;127:66–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita Iovine Demopoulos
  • Khushbakhat Rai Mittal

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations