Hill-Based Muscle Models: A Systems Engineering Perspective

  • Jack M. Winters


Chapter 1 (Zahalak) provided a brief historical treatment of the early findings that led to the muscle model structure first proposed by A. V. Hill (1938). From a “systems engineering” perspective, this is a phenomenologically based, lumped-parameter model that is based on interpretations of input-output data obtained from controlled experiments. Simply stated, this model consists of a contractile element (CE) that is surrounded, both in series and in parallel, by “passive” connective tissue (Figure 5.1). CE is furthermore characterized by two fundamental relationships: CE tension-length and CE force-velocity. Each of these is modulated by an activation input that is structurally distinct from the location for mechanical coupling between the muscle and the environment (Figure 5.1).


Muscle Force Isometric Contraction Sarcomere Length Contractile Element Muscle Model 
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