The Annual Antler Cycle of the European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Relation to the Reproductive Cycle

  • Antoine J. Sempéré


Deer species living in their natural environments are seasonal breeders. The timing of the rut ensures that births occur in the spring and summer when environmental conditions such as temperature and food availability are optimal for the fawn’s survival. Therefore, most temperate deer species breed in the fall (from September to November).


Testosterone Level Fallow Deer Plasma Testosterone Level Deer Species Antler Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antoine J. Sempéré

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