The Annual Antler Cycle of the European Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Relation to the Reproductive Cycle
Deer species living in their natural environments are seasonal breeders. The timing of the rut ensures that births occur in the spring and summer when environmental conditions such as temperature and food availability are optimal for the fawn’s survival. Therefore, most temperate deer species breed in the fall (from September to November).
KeywordsEstrogen Testosterone Glucocorticoid Androgen Prolactin
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