Epidemiology and Clues to the Etiology of Neural Tube Defects

  • Rita P. M. Luciano
  • Francesco Velardi
Part of the Principles of Pediatric Neurosurgery book series (PRINCPEDIATR)


Since the pioneering studies of Record and McKeown1 published in 1949 an increasing number of epidemiologic surveys have been conducted to gather information on the etiology of neural tube defects (NTD). This accounts for the evolution from the puzzled attitude of the past to the present plans for primary prevention. Although a definitive answer to the interlacing thread of questions and apparent contradictions arising from different sources is far from available, some evidence is now clearly discernible, indicating clues to further knowledge and indications for interventional programs.


Neural Tube Spina Bifida Neural Tube Defect Neural Tube Defect Neural Tube Closure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rita P. M. Luciano
  • Francesco Velardi

There are no affiliations available

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