Comparative Anatomy of the Spine in the Newborn, Infant, and Toddler

  • Edgardo Schijman
Part of the Principles of Pediatric Neurosurgery book series (PRINCPEDIATR)


The vertebral column is a flexible structure composed of a series of 33 vertebrae, which extend from the base of the skull, where they articulate with the occipital bone, down to the pelvis, where they articulate with the ileum. The spine consists of seven cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar vertebrae, five sacral vertebrae (these latter fuse, forming a single structure, the sacrum) and four coccygeal vertebrae (also fused in the adult to form a single bone, the coccyx).


Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Pulposus Spinous Process Transverse Process Ossification Center 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

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  • Edgardo Schijman

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