By 1936, when the International Congress of Mathematicians convened in Oslo, Hitler had come to power in Germany and a number of the best known German mathematicians were already refugees from their homeland. In Italy, Mussolini had demanded an oath of loyalty from all university professors and, when Volterra had refused to sign, had dismissed him from the University of Rome and later from all Italian scientific academies. Although German supporters of the new regime and refugees were both at Oslo, not a single Italian male mathematician appeared. (Two women came.) The world’s politicial and economic upheavals were also reflected in declining attendance: Bologna, 836; Zürich, 667; Oslo, 487.