Pervasive Themes in Insect Life Cycle Strategies

  • William E. Bradshaw
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)


Two prominent themes recur as organizing constructs for studies on life history evolution. The first envisions life history variation as adaptations to the relative intensity and/or timing of mortality incurred by various stages of the life cycle (Istock 1967; Murphy 1968; Emlen 1970; Schaffer 1974a,b; Livdahl 1979). The second envisions life histories as adaptations responding to the degree of density dependence experienced by populations (MacArthur 1962; MacArthur and Wilson 1967; Pianka 1970). The theoretical and conceptual offspring of these themes are enormous as any review will reveal (e.g., Wilbur et al. 1974; Giesel 1976; Stearns 1976, 1977; Gould 1977). Direct experiments designed specifically to discriminate between or test these theories have been slower to emerge. Reasonable attempts in the laboratory have been undertaken with bacteria (Luckinbill 1978, 1984), protozoa (Luckinbill 1979), Drosophila (Giesel and Zettler 1980; Mueller and Ayala 1981; Barclay and Gregory 1981), and copepods (Bergmans 1984).


Life History Genetic Correlation Life History Trait Clutch Size Life History Evolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allan, J.D.: Life history variation in a freshwater copepod: evidence from population crosses. Evolution 38, 280–291 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barclay, H.J., Gregory, P.T.: An experimental test of models predicting life history characteristics. Am. Natur. 117, 944–961 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergmans, M.: Life history adaptation to demographic regime in laboratory-cultured Tisbe furcata (Copepoda, Harpacticoida). Evolution 38, 292–299 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berven, K.A., Gill, D.E.: Interpreting geographic variation in life history traits. Am. Zool. 23, 85–97 (1983).Google Scholar
  5. den Boer, P.J.: Spreading the risk and stabilization of animal numbers. Acta Biotheor. 18, 165–194 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonner, J.T.: Size and Cycle. An Essay on the Structure of Biology. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965.Google Scholar
  7. Bradshaw, W.E.: Homeostasis and polymorphism in vernal development of Chaoborus americanus. Ecology 54, 1247–1259 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradshaw, W.E., Holzapfel, C.M.: Biology of tree-hole mosquitoes: photoperiodic control of development in northern Toxorhynchites rutilus (Coq.). Can. J. Zool. 53, 713–719 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradshaw, W.E., Holzapfel, C.M.: Interaction between photoperiod, temperature, and chilling in dormant larvae of the tree-hole mosquito, Toxorhynchites rutilus Coq. Biol. Bull. 152, 147–158 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Corbet, P.S.: Environmental factors influencing the induction and termination of diapause in the emperor dragonfly, Anax imperator. J. Exp. Biol. 33, 1–14 (1956).Google Scholar
  11. Crovello, T.J., Hacker, C.S.: Evolutionary strategies in life table characteristics among feral and urban strains of Aedes aegypti (L.). Evolution 26, 185–196 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Danilevskii, A.S.: Photoperiodism and Seasonal Development of Insects. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1965.Google Scholar
  13. Dingle, H., Baldwin, J.D.: Geographic variation in life histories: a comparison of tropical and temperate milkweek bugs (Oncopeltus). In: Diapause and Life Cycle Strategies in Insects. Brown, V.K., Hodek, I. (eds.). The Hague: Junk, 1983, pp. 143–166.Google Scholar
  14. Dingle, H., Blau, W.S., Brown, C.K., Hegmann, J.P.: Population crosses and genetic structure of milkweed bug life histories. In: Evolution and Genetics of Life Histories. Dingle, H., Hegmann, J.P. (eds.). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982, pp. 209–229.Google Scholar
  15. Dingle, H., Brown, C.K., and Hegmann, J.P.: The nature of genetic variance influencing photoperiodic diapause in a migrant insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Am. Natur. 111, 1047–1059 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eldredge, N., and Gould, S.J.: Punctuated equilibrium: an alternative to phyletic gradualism. In: Models in Paleobiology. Schopf, T.J.M. (ed.). San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper, and Co., 1972, pp. 82–115.Google Scholar
  17. Emlen, J.M.: Age-specificity and ecological theory. Ecology 51, 588–601 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Falconer, D.S.: Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. London and New York: Longman, 1981.Google Scholar
  19. Fisher, R.A.: The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. New York: Dover, 1958.Google Scholar
  20. Giesel, J.T.: Reproductive strategies as adaptations to life in temporally heterogeneous environments. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 7, 57–79 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Giesel, J.T., Murphy, P., Manlove, M.: An investigation of the effects of temperature on the genetic organization of life history indices in three populations of Drosophila melanogaster. In: Evolution and Genetics of Life Histories. Dingle, H., Hegmann, J.P. (eds.). New York, Springer-Verlag, 1982, pp. 189–207.Google Scholar
  22. Giesel, J.T., Zettler, E.E.: Genetic correlations of life historical parameters and certain fitness indices in Drosophila melanogaster: r m, r s, diet breadth. Oecologia 47, 299–302 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gould, S.J.: Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Cambridge: The Balknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  24. Gould, S.J., and Lewontin, R.C.: The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lon. B 205, 581–598 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hairston, N.G., Munns, W.R.: The timing of copepod diapause as an evolutionary stable strategy. Am. Natur. 123, 733–751 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Haldane, J.B.S., Jayakar, S.D.: Polymorphism due to selection of varying direction. J. Genet. 58, 237–242 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hegmann, J.P., Dingle, H.: Phenotypic and genetic covariance structure in milkweed bug life history traits. In: Evolution and Genetics of Life Histories. Dingle, H., Hegmann, J.P. (eds.). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982, pp. 177–185.Google Scholar
  28. Holzapfel, C.M., Bradshaw, W.E.: Geography of larval dormancy in the tree-hole mosquito, Aedes triseriatus (Say). Can. J. Zool. 59, 1014–1021 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Istock, C.A.: The evolution of complex life cycle phenomena: an ecological perspective. Evolution 21, 592–605 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Istock, C. A.: Natural selection and life history variation: theory plus lessons from a mosquito. In: Insect Life History Patterns. Denno, R., Dingle, H. (eds.). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981, pp. 113–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jinks, J.L., Broadhurst, P.L.: Diallele analysis of litter size and body weight in rats. Heredity 18, 319–336 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lande, R.: Genetic variance and phenotypic evolution during allopatric speciation. Am. Natur. 116, 463–479 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lande, R.: A quantitative genetic theory of life history evolution. Ecology 63, 607–615 (1982a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lande, R.: Elements of a quantitative genetic model of life history evolution. In: Evolution and Genetics of Life Histories. Dingle, H., Hegmann, J.P. (eds.). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982b, pp. 21–29.Google Scholar
  35. Levene, H.: Genetic equilibrium when more than one ecological niche is available. Am. Natur. 87, 331–333 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Levins, R., MacArthur, R.: The maintenance of genetic polymorphism in a spatially heterogenous environment: variations on a theme by Howard Levene. Am. Natur. 100, 585–589 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lewontin, R.C.: Selection for colonizing ability. In: The Genetics of Colonizing Species. Baker, H.G., Stebbins, G.L. (eds.). New York: Academic Press, 1965, pp. 77–94.Google Scholar
  38. Livdahl, T.P.: Environmental uncertainty and selection for life style delays in opportunistic species. Am. Natur. 113, 835–842 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lounibos, L.P., and Bradshaw, W.E.: A second diapause in Wyeomyia smithii: seasonal influence and maintenance by photoperiod. Can. J. Zool. 53, 215–221 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Luckenbill, L.S.: r-and K-selection in experimental populations of Escherichia coli. Science 202, 1201–1203 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Luckenbill, L.S.: Selection and the r/K continuum in experimental populations of protozoa. Am. Natur. 113, 427–437 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Luckenbill, L.S.: An experimental analysis of a life history theory. Ecology 65, 1170–1184 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lynch, M.: The limits to life history evolution in Daphnia. Evolution 38, 465–482 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MacArthur, R.H.: Some generalized theorems of natural selection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48, 1893–1897 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MacArthur, R.H., and Wilson, E.O.: The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princteon: Princeton University Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  46. Margalef, R.: Perspectives in Ecolgical Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  47. Mueller, L.D., Ayala, F.J.: Trade-off between r-selection and K-selection in Drosophila populations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 1303–1305 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Murphy, G.I.: Patterns in life history and the environment. Am. Natur. 102, 391–403 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Odum, E.P.: The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164, 262–270 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Perrins, C.M., Jones, P.J.: The inheritance of clutch size in the great tit (Parus major L.). Condor 76, 225–229 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pianka, E.R.: On r-and K-selection. Am. Natur. 104, 592–597 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Powell, J.R.: Genetic polymorphism in varied environments. Science 174, 1035–1036 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rose, M.R.: Antagonistic pleiotropy, dominance, and genetic variation. Heredity 48, 63–78 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rose, M.R.: Theories of life history evolution. Am. Zool. 23, 15–23 (1983).Google Scholar
  55. Rose, M.R., Charlesworth, B.: Genetics of life history in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Sib analysis of adult females. Genetics 97, 173–186 (1981a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Rose, M.R., Charlesworth, B.: Genetics of life history in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Exploratory selection experiments. Genetics 97, 187–196 (1981b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Roughgarden, J.: The evolution of niche width. Am. Natur. 106, 683–718 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Saunders, D.S.: Insect Clocks. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  59. Schaffer, W.M.: Selection for optimal life histories: the effects of age structure. Ecology 55, 291–303 (1974a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schaffer, W.M.: Optimal reproductive effort in fluctuating environments. Am. Natur. 108, 783–790 (1974b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Slobodkin, L.B.: Toward a predictive theory of evolution. In: Population Biology and Evolution. Lewontin, R.C. (ed.). Syracuse, Syracuse University Press, 1968, pp. 187–205.Google Scholar
  62. Spielman, A.: The inheritance of autogeny in the Culex pipiens complex of mosquitoes. Am. J. Hyg. 65, 404–425 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Stearns, S.C.: Life history tactics: a review of the ideas. Q. Rev. Biol. 51, 3–47 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stearns, S.C.: The evolution of life history traits: a critique of the theory and a review of the data. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 8, 145–171 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stearns, S.C.: The evolution of life history traits in mosquitofish since their introduction to Hawaii in 1905: Rates of evolution, heritabilities, and developmental plasticities. Am. Zool. 23, 65–75 (1983).Google Scholar
  66. Tuomi, J., Hakala, T., Haukioja, E.: Alternative concepts of reproductive effort, costs of reproduction, and selection in life history evolution. Am. Zool. 23, 25–34 (1983).Google Scholar
  67. Via, S.: The quantitative genetics of polyphagy in an insect herbivore. II. Genetic correlations in larval performance within and among host plants. Evolution 38, 896–905 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Walter, N.M., Hacker, C.S.: Variation in life table characteristics among three geographic strains of Culex pipiens quinquifasciatus. J. Med. Entomol. 11, 541–550 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Wilbur, H.M., Tinkle, D.W., and Collins, J.P.: Environmental certainty, trophic level, and resource availability in life history evolution. Am. Natur. 108, 805–817 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Williams, G.C.: Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11, 398–411 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Williamson, P.G.: Morphological stasis and developmental constraint: real problems for neo-Darwinism. Nature 294, 214–215 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. Bradshaw

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations