Shigellosis is an acute enteric infection of man caused by the four bacterial species Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii, and Shigella sonnei. Bacillary dysentery is synonymous with shigellosis. The infection has a worldwide distribution and is prevalent in places where sanitary standards and levels of personal hygiene are low. In the United States, as well as in developing countries, shigellosis persists as a leading cause of diarrheal outbreaks in communities. Man is the major reservoir of shigellae in nature, and the infection is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, often by way of infected hands or fomites, and sometimes by way of contaminated food or water. Clinically, the disease is characterized by abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, and stools containing blood and mucus. Although the illness is self-limited with almost negligible mortality, antibiotics can shorten the duration of symptoms and hasten elimination of shigellae from stools.
KeywordsMethylene Blue Typhoid Fever Watery Diarrhea Methylene Blue Solution Shigella Sonnei
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