Mediterranean Late Cenozoic Stable Isotope Record: Stratigraphic and Paleoclimatic Implications

  • Colette Vergnaud-Grazzini


Ocean evolution during the past 100 million years (m.y.) has involved the replacement of warm Cretaceous oceans and seas by cold Neogene oceans, the closure of the Tethys, a major circum-tropical ocean, and the development of a circum-polar ocean and a north-south axis linking the Arctic with a southern ocean. The response of the Tethys (then the Mesogean and subsequently the Mediterranean) to this global climatic evolution would likely have been a specific one. Information on this climatic history is obtained by comparing the evolution of geochemical parameters, as recorded in deep-sea sediments, in the Tethys—or Mediterranean—and in the Atlantic. Among others, carbon and oxygen isotopes in marine carbonates have proved to be an indispensable tool for climatic reconstruction. Additional characteristic isotopic events have been identified that are synchronous on a world-wide scale and can serve as stratigraphie markers. These isotopic events are generally linked with paleoclimatic or hydrologie changes. The δ18O variations are controlled by temperature changes and/or ice formation on land and at the poles; among the important factors affecting the distribution of δ13C of the total dissolved inorganic carbon in the world ocean is the apparent oxygen utilization (related to the progressive oxidation of organic matter). In deep waters, longer residence time favors the addition of δ13C-depleted carbon to the dissolved bicarbonate by the oxidation of organic matter and accounts for the relation between the residence time of deep water masses and the δ13C values of the ΣCO2 (the greater the residence time, the lower the δ13C of the ΣCO2).


Oxygen Isotope Carbon Isotopic Composition Benthic Foraminifera Oxygen Isotopic Composition Planktonic Foraminifera 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Auffret, G.A., Sichler, B. and Coleno, B., 1981. Deep-sea sediments texture and magnetic fabric indicators of bottom current regimes. Oceanol. Acta, 4:475–488.Google Scholar
  2. Bender, M.L. and Graham, D.W., 1981. On late Miocene abyssal hydrography. Mar. Micropaleont., 6:451–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berger, W.H., 1982. Increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during déglaciation: the coral reef hypothesis. Naturwissenschaften, 69:87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berger, W.H., Diester-Haass, L. and Killingley, J.S., 1978a. Upwelling off northwest Africa: the Holocene decrease as seen in carbon isotopes and sedimentological indicators. Oceanol. Acta, 1:3–7.Google Scholar
  5. Berger, W.H., Killingley, J.S. and Vincent, E., 1978b. Stable isotopes in deep sea carbonates: box core ERDC-12, west equatorial Pacific. Oceanol. Acta, 1:203–216.Google Scholar
  6. Berggren, W.A., Burckle, L.H., Cita, M.B., Cooke, H.B.S., Funnell, B.M., Gartner, S., Hays, J.D., Kennett, J.P., Opdyke, N.D., Pastouret, L., Shackleton, N.J. and Takayanagi, Y., 1980. Towards a Quaternary time scale. Quatern. Res., 13:277–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bizon, G., Müller, C. and Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1979. Paleoenvironmental conditions during the deposition of late Miocene diatomaceous sediments in Morocco and Cyprus. Ann. Géol. Pays Hellen., tome hors sér., VIIth International Congress on Mediterranean Neogene, Athens, 1979 1:113–128.Google Scholar
  8. Bloom, A.L., Chappell, W.S., Matthews, R.K., Mesolella, K.J., 1974. Quaternary sea level fluctuations on a tectonic coast: new 230Th/234U dates from the Hum Peninsula, New Guinea. Quatern. Res., 4:187–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyle, E.A. and Keigwin, L.D., 1982. Deep circulation of the North Atlantic over the last 200,000 yrs: geochemical evidences. Science, 218:784–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Broecker, W.S., 1982. Glacial to interglacial changes in ocean chemistry. Prog. Oceanogr., 11:151–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buckley, H.A., Johnson, L.R., Shackleton, N.J. and Blow, R.A., 1982. Late glacial to recent cores from the eastern Mediterranean. Deep-Sea Res., 29:739–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cavelier, C., Chateauneuf, J.J., Pomerol, C., Rabussier, D., Renard, M. and Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1981. The geological events at the Eocene/Oligo-cene boundary. Paleogeogr., Paleoclimat., Paleoecol., 36:223–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cita, M.B., Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., Robert, C., Chamley, H., Ciaranfi, N. and d’Onofrio, S., 1977. Paleoclimatic record of a long deep sea core from the Eastern Mediterranean. Quatern. Res., 8:205–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Craig, H., 1965. The measurement of oxygen isotope paleotemperatures. In: E. Tongiorgi (Editor), Proceedings of the Spoleto Conference on Stable Isotopes in Océanographie Studies and Paleotemperatures, Pisa, 3:3–24.Google Scholar
  15. Craig, H., 1970. Abyssal carbon 13 in the South Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 75:691–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Craig, H. and Gordon, L.I., 1965. Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In: E. Tongiorgi (Editor), Proceedings of the Spoleto Conference on Stable Isotopes in Océanographie Studies and Paleotemperatures, Pisa, 2:9–130.Google Scholar
  17. Curry, W.B. and Lohmann, G.P., 1982. Carbon iso-topic changes in benthic foraminifera from the western South Atlantic: reconstruction of glacial abyssal circulation patterns. Quatern. Res., 18:218–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dansgaard, W., 1964. Stable isotopes in precipitations. Tellus, 16:436–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S.J., Reeh, N., Gundestrup, N., Clausen, H.B. and Hammer, C.U., 1975. Climatic changes, Norsemen and modern man. Nature, 255:24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deuser, W.G., Ross, E.H., Hemleben, C. and Spindler, M. 1981. Seasonal changes in species composition, numbers, mass, size and isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifera settling into the deep Sargasso Sea. Paleogeogr., Paleoclimat., Paleoecol., 33:103–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duplessy, J.C., 1972. La géochimie des isotopes stables du carbone dans la mer. Thesis, Univ. de Paris, 196 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Duplessy, J.C., Lalou, C. and Vinot, A.C., 1970. Differential isotopic fractionation in benthic foraminifera and paleotemperatures reassessed. Science, 168:250–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Duplessy, J.C., Delibrias, G., Turon, J.L., Pujol, C. and Duprat, J., 1981. Deglacial warming of the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean: correlation with the paleoclimatic evolution of the European continent. Paleogeogr., Paleoclimat., Paleoecol., 35:121–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Emiliani, C., 1955a. Pleistocene temperatures. J. Geol., 63:538–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Emiliani, C., 1955b. Pleistocene temperature variations in the Mediterranean. Quaternaria, 2:87–98.Google Scholar
  26. Emiliani, C., 1966. Paleotemperature analysis of Caribbean cores P 6304–8 and P 6304–9 and a generalized temperature curve for the past 425,000 years. J. Geol., 74:109–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Emiliani, C. and Epstein, S., 1953. Temperature variations in the lower Pleistocene of Southern California. J. Geol., 61:171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Emrich, K., Ehhalt, D.H. and Vogel, J.C., 1970. Carbon isotope fractionation during the precipitation of calcium carbonate. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 8:363–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Epstein, S. and Mayeda, J., 1953. Variation of 180 content of waters from natural sources. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 4:213–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Epstein, S., Buchsbaum, R., Lowenstam, H.A. and Urey, H.C., 1953. Revised carbonate-water isotope temperature scale. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 64:135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Erez, J. and Luz, B. 1982. Temperature control of oxygen isotope fractionation of cultured plank-tonic foraminifera. Nature, 297:220–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fabricius, F.H., Von Rad, U., Hesse, R., Ott, W., 1970. Die oberflächensedimente der strabe von Otranto (Mittelmeer). Geol. Rundsch., 60:164–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fairbanks, R.G., Weibe, P.H. and Be, A.W.H., 1980. Vertical distribution and isotopic composition of living planktonic foraminifera in the western North Atlantic. Science, 207:61–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Graham, D.W., Corliss, B.H., Bender, M.L. and Keigwin, D., Jr., 1981. Carbon and oxygen isotopic disequilibria of recent deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Mar. Micropal., 6:483–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Halicz, E. and Reiss, Z., 1981. Paleoecological relations of foraminifera in a desert-enclosed sea, The Gulf of Aqaba (Elat), Red Sea. Mar. Ecol. 2:15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hays, J.D., Saito, T., Opdyke, N.D. and Burckle, L.H., 1969. Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments of the equatorial Pacific: their palaeomagnetic, biostrati-graphic and climatic record. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 80:1481–1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hecht, A.D. and Savin, S.M., 1972. Phenotypic variation and oxygen isotope ratios in recent planktonic foraminifera. J. F or am. Res., 2:55–67.Google Scholar
  38. Hopkins, T.S., 1978. Physical processes in the Mediterranean basins. In: B. Kjertve (Editor), Estuarine Transport Processes. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp. 269–310.Google Scholar
  39. Kahn, M.I., 1979. Non-equilibrium oxygen and carbon isotopic fractionation in tests of living planktonic foraminifera. Oceanol. Acta, 2:55–208.Google Scholar
  40. Keigwin, L.D., Jr., 1979. Late Cenozoic stable isotope stratigraphy and paleoceanography of DSDP sites from the east equatorial and north central Pacific Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 45:361–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kidd, R.B., Cita, M.B. and Ryan, W.B.F., 1978. Stratigraphy of eastern Mediterranean sapropel sequences recovered during Leg 42A and their paleoenvironmental significance. In: K.J. Hsü et al. (Editors), Initial Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project, vol. 42. Natl. Sci. Found., Washington, D.C., pp. 421–443.Google Scholar
  42. Kroopnick, P.M., 1971. Oxygen and carbon in the ocean and atmosphere, stable isotopes as tracers for consumption, production and circulation models. Thesis, Univ. California, San Diego, 230 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Kroopnick, P.M., Weiss, R.F. and Craig, H., 1972. Total CO2, 13C and dissolved oxygen 18O at Geosecs II in the North Atlantic. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 16:103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kukla, G.J., 1977. Pleistocene land-sea correlations. 1. Europe. Earth Sci. Rev., 13:307–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kullenberg, B., 1952. On the salinity of the water contained in marine sediments. Middelandem fran Oceanografiska Institutet i Göteborg, 21:1–38.Google Scholar
  46. Lacombe, H. and Tchernia, P., 1972a. Caractères hydrologiques et circulation des eaux en Méditerranée. In: D.J. Stanley (Editor), The Mediterranean Sea: A Natural Sedimentation Laboratory. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, pp. 26–36.Google Scholar
  47. Lacombe, H. and Tchernia, P., 1972b. Le problème de la formation des eaux marines profondes. Déroulement du phénomène en Méditerranée nord-occidentale par hiver très froid (janvier-mars 1963). Ann. Inst. Océanogr., (1971–1972):48:1–112.Google Scholar
  48. Lacombe, H., Gascard, J.C., Gonella, J. and Bethoux, J.P., 1981. Response of the Mediterranean to the water and energy fluxes across its surface, on seasonal and interannual scales. Oceanol. Acta, 4:247–255.Google Scholar
  49. Leclaire, L., 1972. Interstades anté-würmiens et dépôts pélagiques contemporains de plages tyrrhéniennes dans le bassin algéro-baléares (Méditerranée occidentale). C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D, 275:2207–2210.Google Scholar
  50. Leclaire, L. and Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1972. Variations des associations de foraminifères planctoniques et paléotempérature s isotopiques depuis le début du dernier glaciaire dans une carotte du bassin algéro-baléares. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sér. D, 275:2111–2114.Google Scholar
  51. Longinelli, A., 1972. Oxygen isotopic compositions of dissolved sulfates in Mediterranean Sea water samples. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer Médit., 20:665–668.Google Scholar
  52. Lorius, C., 1974. Antarctica: survey of near surface mean isotope values. Cambridge Workshop Monograph, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  53. Lorius, C., Merlivat, L., Jouzel, J. and Pourchet, N., 1979. A 30,000 yr isotope climatic record from Antarctic ice. Nature, 280:644–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Loutit, T.S. and Keigwin, L.D., Jr., 1982. Stable isotopic evidence for latest Miocene sea-level fall in the Mediterranean region. Nature, 300:163–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lowe, J.J., Gray, J.M. and Robinson, J.E., 1980. Studies in the Late Glacial of Northwest Europe. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 205 pp.Google Scholar
  56. Luz, B., 1979. Palaeo-oceanography of the post-glacial Mediterranean. Nature, 278:847–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marce, A., 1966. Eléments d’hydrologie isotopique. Répartition de l’oxygène 18 dans les eaux marines de Villefranche sur mer (bassin occidental méditerranéen). Thesis. Univ. de Paris, 125 pp.Google Scholar
  58. Merlivat, L. and Menache, M., 1973. Etude de profils de deuterium et de tritium en Méditerranée occidentale (Abstract). Réun. Ann. Sci. Terre, Paris, p. 300.Google Scholar
  59. Mesolella, K.J., Matthews, R.K., Broecker, W.S. and Thurber, D.L., 1969. The astronomical theory of climate change, Barbados data. J. Geol., 77:250–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mullineaux, L.S. and Lohmann, G.P., 1981. Late Quaternary stagnations recirculations of the Eastern Mediterranean: changes in the deep water recorded by fossil benthic Foraminifera. J. Foram. Res., 11:20–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Olausson, E., 1961. Studies of deep sea cores. In: Reports of the Swedish Deep Sea Expedition 1947–1948, 8:353–391.Google Scholar
  62. Olson, E.A. and Broecker, W.S., 1959. Lamont Natural carbon measurements VII. Am. J. Sci., Radiocarbon suppl., 257:1–28.Google Scholar
  63. Olsson, I., 1959. Uppsala natural radiocarbon measurements, I. Am. J. Sci., Radiocarbon suppl., 1:87–102.Google Scholar
  64. Pastouret, L., 1970. Etude sédimentologique et paléoclimatique de carottes prélevées en Méditerranée orientale. Téthys, 2:227–266.Google Scholar
  65. Pickard, G.L., 1963. Descriptive Physical Oceanography. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 200 pp.Google Scholar
  66. Rabussier-Lointier, D., 1980. Variations de composition isotopique de l’oxygène et du carbone en milieu marin et coupures stratigraphiques du Cénozoique, Thesis, Univ. Pierre et Maris Curie, Paris.Google Scholar
  67. Reid, J.L., 1979. On the contribution of the Mediterranean Sea outflow to the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. Deep-Sea Res., 26:1199–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rossignol-Strick, M., 1983. African monsoons, an immediate climate response to orbital insolation. Nature, 304:46–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rossignol-Strick, M., Nesteroff, W., Olive, P. and Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1982. After the deluge: Mediterranean stagnation and sapropel formation. Nature, 295:105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rotschy, F., Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., Bellaiche, G., Chamley, H., 1972. Etude paléoclimatologique d’une carotte prélevée sur un dôme de la plaine abyssale ligure (“structure Alinat”). Paleogeogr., Paleoclimat., Paleoecol., 11:125–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rubinson, M. and Clayton, R.N., 1969. Carbon-13 fractionation between aragonite and calcite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 33:997–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ruddiman, W.F. and Macintyre, A., 1973. Timetransgressive deglacial retreat of Polar waters from the North Atlantic. Quatern. Res., 3:117–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ruddiman, W.F. and Macintyre, A., 1981. The North Atlantic Ocean during the last déglaciation. Paleogeogr., Paleoclimat., Paleoecol., 35:145–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ryan, W.B.F., 1972. Stratigraphy of Late Quaternary sediments in the eastern Mediterranean. In: D.J. Stanley (Editor), The Mediterranean Sea: A Natural Sedimentation Laboratory, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, pp. 149–169.Google Scholar
  75. Ryan, W.B.F. and Cita, M.B., 1977. Ignorance concerning episodes of ocean wide stagnation. Mar. Geol., 23:197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Scholle, P.A. and Arthur, M.A., 1980. Carbon isotope fluctuations in Cretaceous pelagic limestones: potential stratigraphie and petroleum exploration tool. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 64:67–87.Google Scholar
  77. Schrader, H. and Matherne, A., 1981. Sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean sea: evidence from preserved opal assemblages. Micropal., 27:191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Seibold, E., 1970. Nebenmeere im humiden und ariden Klimabereich. Geol. Rundsch., 60:73–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shackleton, N.J., 1973. Attainment of isotopic equilibrium between ocean water and the benthonic foraminifera genus Uvigerina: isotopic changes in the ocean during the last glacial. Coll. Int. CNRS, 219:203–209.Google Scholar
  80. Shackleton, N.J., 1977. Carbon-13 in Uvigerina: tropical rainforest history and the equatorial Pacific carbonate dissolution cycles. In: N.R. Andersen and A. Malahoff (Editors), The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO 2 in the Oceans. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 401–427.Google Scholar
  81. Shackleton, N.J. and Cita, M.B., 1979. Oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy of benthic foraminifera at site 397: detailed history of climatic change during the late Neogene. In: V. Von Rad et al., (Editors), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, vol. 47, part 1. Natl. Sci. Found., Washington, D.C., pp. 433–445.Google Scholar
  82. Shackleton, N.J. and Kennett, J.P., 1975. Paleotem-perature history of the Cenozoic and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation: oxygen and carbon isotope analyses in DSDP sites 277, 279, and 281. In: J.P. Kennett et al. (Editors), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, vol. 29, Natl. Sci Found., Washington, D.C., pp. 743–755.Google Scholar
  83. Shackleton, N.J. and Matthews, R.K., 1977. Oxygen isotope stratigraphy of late Pleistocene coral terraces in Barbados. Nature, 268:618–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shackleton, N.J. and Opdyke, N.D., 1973. Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific core V28–238: oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volumes on a 105 and 106 years scale. Quatern. Res., 3:39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shackleton, N.J. and Opdyke, N.D. 1976. Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of Equatorial Pacific Core V 28–239, late Pliocene to latest Pleistocene. In: R.M. Cline and J.D. Hays (Editors), Investigations of Late Quaternary Palaeo-ceanography and Palaeoclimatology, Geol. Soc. Amer., Mem. 145:449–464.Google Scholar
  86. Shackleton, N.J. and Opdyke, N.D., 1977. Oxygen isotope and palaeomagnetic evidence for early northern Hemisphere glaciation. Nature, 270:216–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shackleton, N.J. and Vincent, E., 1978. Oxygen and carbon isotope studies in recent foraminifera from the southwest Indian Ocean. Mar. Micropaleontol., 3:1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Shackleton, N.J., Wiseman, J.D.H. and Buckley, H.A., 1973. Nonequilibrium isotopic fractionation between sea-water and planktonic foraminiferal tests. Nature, 242:177–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stahl, W. and Rinow, U., 1973. Sauerstoffisotopenanalysen an Mittelmeerwässern. Ein Beitrag zur Problematik von Paläotemperaturbe Stimmungen. Meteor Forsch. Ergebnisse., C, 14:55–59.Google Scholar
  90. Stanley, D.J., 1977. Post-Miocene depositional patterns and structural displacement in the Mediterranean. In: A.E. Nairn et al. (Editors), The Ocean Basins and Margins, 4A. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 77–150.Google Scholar
  91. Stanley, D.J., 1981. Unifites: structureless muds of gravity-flow origin in Mediterranean basins. Geo-Mar. Lett., 1:77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Stanley, D.J. and Maldonado, A., 1977. Nile Cone: Late Quaternary stratigraphy and sediment dispersal. Nature, 266:129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Streeter, S.S. and Shackleton, N.J., 1979. Paleocirculation of the deep North Atlantic: 150,000 years record of benthic foraminifera and oxygen-18. Science, 203:168–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tarutani, T., Clayton, R.N. and Mayeda, T.K., 1969. The effect of polymorphism and magnesium substitution on oxygen isotopic fractionation between calcium carbonate and water. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 33:987–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tchernia, P., 1958. L’eau intermédiaire dans le bassin Algéro-Provençal. Rapp. et P.V. CIESM, 14:43–46.Google Scholar
  96. Tchernia, P., 1960. Hydrologie d’hiver en Méditerranée occidentale. Rapp. et P.V. CIESM, 15:1–277;Google Scholar
  97. Tchernia, P., 1960. Hydrologie d’hiver en Méditerranée occidentale. Bull. Inf. C.O.E.C., 12:184–198.Google Scholar
  98. Tchernia, P., 1978. Océanographie régionale. Description physique des océans et des mers. Centre d’Edit., Document., Techniques Avancées, Paris, 257 pp.Google Scholar
  99. Thunell, R.C, 1979a. Pliocene-Pleistocene pa-leotemperature and paleosalinity history of the Mediterranean Sea: results from DSDP sites 125 and 132. Mar. Micropaleontol., 4:173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Thunell, R.C., 1979b. Climatic evolution of the Mediterranean Sea during the last 5.0 million years. Sed. Geol., 23:67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Thunell, R.C. and Keigwin, L.D., 1978. Faunal and oxygen isotopic evidence from the Mediterranean Sea for the initiation of northern hemisphere glaciation. Geol. Soc. Am., Abstr. with Programs, 10:505.Google Scholar
  102. Thunell, R.C. and Lohmann, G.P., 1979. Planktonic foraminiferal fauna associated with eastern Mediterranean Quaternary stagnations. Nature, 281:211–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Thunell, R.C. and Williams, D.F., 1983. The stepwise development of Pliocene-Pleistocene paleoclimatic and paleoceanic conditions in the Mediterranean: Oxygen isotopic studies of DSDP sites 125 and 132. Utrecht Micropal. Bull., 30: 111–127.Google Scholar
  104. Thunell, R.C., Williams, D.F. and Kennett, J.P., 1977. Late Quaternary palaeoclimatology, stratigraphy and sapropel history in eastern Mediterranean deep-sea sediments. Mar. Micropaleontol., 2:371–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tixeront, J., 1970. Le bilan hydrologique de la mer Noire et de la Méditerranée. Cah. Océanogr., 22:227–237.Google Scholar
  106. Urey, H.C, 1947. The thermodynamic properties of isotopic substances. J. Chem. Soc., 1947:562–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vail, P.R., Mitchum, R.M. and Thompson, S., 1977. Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sealevel, part 4: global cycles of relative changes of sea level. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Mem., 26:83–97.Google Scholar
  108. van der Zwaan, G.J., 1982. Paleoecology of late Miocene Mediterranean foraminifera. Utrecht Micropal. Bull., 25:201 pp.Google Scholar
  109. Van Donk, J., 1970. The oxygen isotope record in deep-sea sediments. Thesis, Columbia University, New York, 228 pp.Google Scholar
  110. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1973. Etude écologique et isotopique de foraminifères actuels et fossiles de Méditerranée. Thesis, Univ. de Paris, 181 pp.Google Scholar
  111. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1975. 18O changes in foraminiferal carbonates during the last 105 years in the Mediterranean Sea. Science, 190:272–274.Google Scholar
  112. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1976. Non-equilibrium isotopic compositions of shells of planktonic foraminifera in the Mediterranean Sea. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoecol., 20:263–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., 1978. Miocene and Pliocene oxygen and carbon isotopic changes at DSDP sites 372, 374 and 375: implications for pre-Messinian history of the Mediterranean. In: K. Hsü et al. (Editors), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, vol. 42, part 1. Natl. Sci. Found., Washington, D.C., pp. 829–836.Google Scholar
  114. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C. and Bartolini, C., 1970. Evolution paléoclimatique des sédiments würmiens et post-würmiens en mer d’Alboran. Rev. Géogr. Phys. Géol. Dyn., 12:325–334.Google Scholar
  115. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C. and Herman-Rosenberg, Y., 1969. Etude paléoclimatique d’une carotte de Méditerranée orientale. Rev. Géogr. Phys. Géol. Dyn., 11:279–292.Google Scholar
  116. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C. and Pastouret, L., 1980. Evidence de Messinien à l’Ouest de Gibraltar. Carac-térisation faunistique et isotopique. Géol. Médit., 7:135–146.Google Scholar
  117. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C. and Rabussier-Lointier, D., 1981. Oxygen and carbon isotopic changes in marine carbonates. In: F. Cati (Editor), In Search of the Palaeogene/Neogene Boundary Stratotype, Part 1. G. Geol., 44, 1–2:55–66.Google Scholar
  118. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C. and Saliège, J.F., 1985. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of benthic foraminifers at DSDP site 548 and hole 549A: Pleistocene climatic changes and circulation in the Northeastern Atlantic. In: Initial Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project, vol. 80. Natl. Sci. Found., Washington, D.C. (in press).Google Scholar
  119. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., Ryan, W.B.F. and Cita, M.B., 1977. Stable isotopic fractionation, climate change and episodic stagnation in the eastern Mediterranean during the late Quaternary. Mar. Micropaleontol., 2:353–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Vergnaud-Grazzini, C., van der Zwann, G.J. and Iaccarino, S., 1985. Mediterranean climate and hydrology since late Miocene time: Oxygen-18 and Carbon-13 records. VIIIth RCMNS Congress, Budapest, Abstracts (in press).Google Scholar
  121. Vincent, E., Killingley, J.S. and Berger, W.H., 1980. The magnetic epoch-6 carbon shift: a change in the oceans 13C/12C ratio 6.2 million years ago. Mar. Micropaleontol., 5:185–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Vincent, E., Killingley, J.S. and Berger, W.H., 1981. Stable isotope composition of benthic foraminifera from the equatorial Pacific. Nature, 289:639–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Weiner, S., 1975. The carbon isotopic composition of the eastern Mediterranean planktonic foraminifera Orbulina universa and the phenotypes of Globigerinoides ruber. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoecol., 17:149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Williams, D.F., Sommer, M.A., II and Bender, M.L., 1977a. Carbon isotopic compositions of recent planktonic foraminifera of the Indian Ocean. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 36:391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Williams, D.F., Thunell, R.C. and Kennett, J.P., 1977b. Surface water changes recorded by 18O/16O ratios of foraminifera in eastern Mediterranean sapropel layers. EDS (Trans. Am. Geophys. Union), 58:415.Google Scholar
  126. Williams, D.F., Thunell, R.C. and Kennett, J.P., 1978. Periodic freshwater flooding and stagnation of the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the Late Quaternary. Science, 201:252–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Williams, D.F., Be, A.W. and Fairbanks, R.G., 1979. Seasonal oxygen isotopic variations in living planktonic foraminifera off Bermuda. Science, 206:447–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Woodruff, F., Savin, S.M. and Douglas, R.G., 1980. Biological fractionation of oxygen and carbon isotopes by recent benthic foraminifera. Mar. Micropaleontol., 5:3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Worthington, L.V., 1976. On the North Atlantic Circulation. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, 100 pp.Google Scholar
  130. Wüst, G., 1935. Die Stratosphäre. Wissen schaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Atlantischen Expedition “Meteor,” 6:109–288.Google Scholar
  131. Wüst, G., 1961. On the vertical circulation of the Mediterranean Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 66:3261–3271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Znaidi, J. 1982. Les grands événements climatiques du Quaternaire récent en Méditerranée orientale: la réponse sédimentaire, microfaunique et isotopique. Thesis, Mém. Sc. Terre, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, 83–24, Paris.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colette Vergnaud-Grazzini
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de Géologie DynamiqueUniversité Pierre et Marie CurieParisFrance

Personalised recommendations